Download Using Supercritical Water Oxidation To Treat Hydrolysate From Vx Neutralization Ebook, Epub, Textbook, quickly and easily or read online Using Supercritical Water Oxidation To Treat Hydrolysate From Vx Neutralization full books anytime and anywhere. Click download or read online button and get unlimited access by create free account.

Title Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 1998-05-08
Category Science
Total Pages 82
ISBN 030917399X
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The U.S. Army has asked the National Research Council (NRC) to evaluate whether supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an effective and appropriate means of eliminating hazardous or toxic organic constituents in VX hydrolysate for ultimate disposition. The NRC was not asked to conduct an in-depth analysis of the entire integrated VX bulk agent destruction and disposal process for the Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. As the facility design is being finalized (March 1999-April 2000), the NRC will probably be asked to assess all aspects of the facility design, including monitoring, containment, process control, and redundancy, as well as the quantitative risk assessment (QRA). This report outlines the elements of the proposed neutralization/SCWO technology, evaluates the results of ongoing SCWO tests, and makes recommendations concerning aspects of the technology that require further development. The scope of this evaluation did not include evaluations of other potential technologies or management options for the treatment of VX hydrolysate.

Title Using Supercritical Water Oxidation to Treat Hydrolysate from VX Neutralization
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 1998-06-08
Category Science
Total Pages 82
ISBN 9780309060431
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The U.S. Army has asked the National Research Council (NRC) to evaluate whether supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is an effective and appropriate means of eliminating hazardous or toxic organic constituents in VX hydrolysate for ultimate disposition. The NRC was not asked to conduct an in-depth analysis of the entire integrated VX bulk agent destruction and disposal process for the Newport Chemical Agent Disposal Facility. As the facility design is being finalized (March 1999-April 2000), the NRC will probably be asked to assess all aspects of the facility design, including monitoring, containment, process control, and redundancy, as well as the quantitative risk assessment (QRA). This report outlines the elements of the proposed neutralization/SCWO technology, evaluates the results of ongoing SCWO tests, and makes recommendations concerning aspects of the technology that require further development. The scope of this evaluation did not include evaluations of other potential technologies or management options for the treatment of VX hydrolysate.

Title Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2000-03-14
Category Science
Total Pages 52
ISBN 9780309068970
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

In 1996, the U.S. Congress enacted two laws, Public Law 104-201 (authorization legislation) and Public Law 104-208 (appropriation legislation), mandating that the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) conduct an assessment of alternative technologies to the baseline incineration process for the demilitarization of assembled chemical munitions. The PMACWA had previously requested that the National Research Council (NRC) perform and publish an independent evaluation of the seven technologies packages that had been selected during earlier phases of the Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (ACWA) program and deliver a report by September 1, 1999. However, to meet that deadline, the NRC Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons (ACW Committee) had to terminate its data-gathering activities on March 15, 1999, prior to the completion of demonstration tests. In September 1999, the PMACWA requested that the ACW Committee examine the reports of the demonstration tests and determine if the results changed the committee's original findings, recommendations, and comments. Evaluation of Demonstration Test Results of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons documents the committee's reassessment of the findings and recommendations in the original report, Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons.

Title Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 1999-12-24
Category Science
Total Pages 266
ISBN 9780309066396
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

This report examines seven disposal technologies being considered by the U.S. government as alternative methods to the process of incineration for destroying mortars, rockets, land mines, and other weapons that contain chemical warfare agents, such as mustard gas. These weapons are considered especially dangerous because they contain both chemical warfare agent and explosive materials in an assembled package that must be disassembled for destruction. The study identifies the strengths and weaknesses and advantages and disadvantages of each technology and assesses their potential for full-scale implementation.

Title Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2000-06-19
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 58
ISBN 9780309069458
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The U.S. Army is pilot testing chemical hydrolysis as a method for destroying the chemical agents stockpiled at Aberdeen, Maryland (HD mustard agent), and Newport, Indiana (VX nerve agent). The chemical agents at both locations, which are stored only in bulk ton containers, will be hydrolyzed (using aqueous sodium hydroxide for VX and water for HD) at slightly below the boiling temperature of the solution. The resulting hydrolysate at Aberdeen, which will contain thiodiglycol as the primary reaction product, will be treated by activated sludge biodegradation in sequencing batch reactors to oxidize organic constituents prior to discharge to an on-site federally owned wastewater treatment facility. The hydrolysate at Newport, which will contain a thiol amine and methyl phosphonic acid as the major reaction products, is not readily amenable to treatment by biodegradation. Therefore, organic constituents will be treated using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO). Integrated Design of Alternative Technologies for Bulk-Only Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities focuses on the overarching issues in the process designs integrating individual processing steps, including potential alternative configurations and process safety and reliability. This report reviews the acquisition design packages (ADPs) for the ABCDF and NECDF prepared by Stone and Webster Engineering Company for the U.S. Army.

Title Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Pueblo Chemical Depot
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2001-10-27
Category Science
Total Pages 113
ISBN 9780309076074
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (PMACWA) of the Department of Defense (DOD) requested the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the engineering design studies (EDSs) developed by Parsons/Honeywell and General Atomics for a chemical demilitarization facility to completely dispose of the assembled chemical weapons at the Pueblo Chemical Depot in Pueblo, Colorado. To accomplish the task, the NRC formed the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons: Phase II (ACW II Committee). This report presents the results of the committee's scientific and technical assessment, which will assist the Office of the Secretary of Defense in selecting the technology package for destroying the chemical munitions at Pueblo. The committee evaluated the engineering design packages proposed by the technology providers and the associated experimental studies that were performed to validate unproven unit operations. A significant part of the testing program involved expanding the technology base for the hydrolysis of energetic materials associated with assembled weapons. This process was a concern expressed by the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons (ACW I Committee) in its original report in 1999 (NRC, 1999). The present study took place as the experimental studies were in progress. In some cases, tests for some of the supporting unit operations were not completed in time for the committee to incorporate results into its evaluation. In those cases, the committee identified and discussed potential problem areas in these operations. Based on its expertise and its aggressive data-gathering activities, the committee was able to conduct a comprehensive review of the test data that had been completed for the overall system design. This report summarizes the study.

Title Analysis of Engineering Design Studies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons at Blue Grass Army Depot
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2002-10-27
Category Science
Total Pages 172
ISBN 9780309085281
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The U.S. Army is in the process of destroying the nation's stockpile of aging chemical weapons stored at eight locations in the continental United States and on Johnston Atoll in the Pacific. Originally, incineration was chosen for the destruction of these stores, but this method has met with public opposition, and Congress directed the Army to develop alternative technologies for destroying the stockpiles in Pueblo, CO and Richmond, KY. To assist the Army in this process, the NRC was asked to evaluate the engineering design study of the three Blue Grass candidates. This book presents an analysis of various issues pertaining to the proposed engineering design package for the Blue Grass facility.

Title Weapons of Mass Destruction Nuclear weapons
Author Anonim
Publisher ABC-CLIO
Release Date 2005
Category Weapons of mass destruction
Total Pages 86
ISBN 9781851094905
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

Title Review and Evaluation of the Army Non Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2001-04-29
Category Science
Total Pages 78
ISBN 9780309072878
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

Chemical warfare materiel (CWM) is a collection of diverse items that were used during 60 years of efforts by the United States to develop a capability for conducting chemical warfare. Nonstockpile CWM, which is not included in the current U.S. inventory of chemical munitions, includes buried materiel, recovered materiel, binary chemical weapons, former production facilities, and miscellaneous materiel. CWM that was buried in pits on former military sites is now being dug up as the land is being developed for other purposes. Other CWM is on or near the surface at former test and firing ranges. According to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which was ratified by the United States in April 1997, nonstockpile CWM items in storage at the time of ratification must be destroyed by 2007. The U.S. Army is the designated executive agent for destroying CWM. Nonstockpile CWM is being handled by the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Program (NSCMP); stockpile CWM is the responsibility of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Because nonstockpile CWM is stored or buried in many locations, the Army is developing transportable disposal systems that can be moved from site to site as needed. The Army has plans to test prototypes of three transportable systems-the rapid response system (RRS), the munitions management device (MMD), and the explosive destruction system (EDS)-for accessing and destroying a range of nonstockpile chemical agents and militarized industrial chemicals. The RRS is designed to treat recovered chemical agent identification sets (CAIS), which contain small amounts of chemical agents and a variety of highly toxic industrial chemicals. The MMD is designed to treat nonexplosively configured chemical munitions. The EDS is designed to treat munitions containing chemical agents with energetics equivalent to three pounds of TNT or less. These munitions are considered too unstable to be transported or stored. A prototype EDS system has recently been tested in England by non-stockpile program personnel. Although originally proposed for evaluation in this report, no test data were available to the committee on the composition of wastes from the EDS. Therefore, alternative technologies for the destruction of EDS wastes will be discussed in a supplemental report in fall 2001. Treatment of solid wastes, such as metal munition bodies, packing materials, and carbon air filters, were excluded from this report. Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program: Disposal of Neutralent Wastes evaluates the near-term (1999-2005) application of advanced (nonincineration) technologies, such as from the Army's Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment Program and the Alternative Technologies and Approaches Project, in a semi-fixed, skid-mounted mode to process Rapid Response System, Munitions Management Device, and Explosive Destruction System liquid neutralization wastes.

Title Occupational Health and Workplace Monitoring at Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2001-01-01
Category Science
Total Pages 56
ISBN 0309183340
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

In keeping with a congressional mandate (Public Law 104-484) and the Chemical Weapons Convention, the United States is currently destroying its chemical weapons stockpile. The Army must ensure that the chemical demilitarization workforce is protected from the risks of exposure to hazardous chemicals during disposal operations and during and after facility closure. Good industrial practices developed in the chemical and nuclear energy industries and other operations that involve the processing of hazardous materials include workplace monitoring of hazardous species and a systematic occupational health program for monitoring workers' activities and health. In this report, the National Research Council Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program examines the methods and systems used at JACADS and TOCDF, the two operational facilities, to monitor the concentrations of airborne and condensed-phase chemical agents, agent breakdown products, and other substances of concern. The committee also reviews the occupational health programs at these sites, including their industrial hygiene and occupational medicine components. Finally, it evaluates the nature, quality, and utility of records of workplace chemical monitoring and occupational health programs.

Title Review of the Army Non Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2000-01-03
Category Political Science
Total Pages 150
ISBN 9780309068796
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

This study is a review and evaluation of the U.S. Army's Report to Congress on Alternative Approaches for the Treatment and Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS). CAIS are test kits that were used to train soldiers from 1928 to 1969 in defensive responses to a chemical attack. They contain samples of chemicals that had been or might have been used by opponents as chemical warfare agents. The Army's baseline approach for treating and disposing of CAIS has been to develop a mobile treatment system, called the Rapid Response System (RRS), which can be carried by several large over-the-road trailers.

Title Interim Design Assessment for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2005-10-25
Category Science
Total Pages 94
ISBN 0309181690
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

Because of concerns about incineration, the Department of Defense plans to use alternative means to destroy the chemical agent stockpiles at the Pueblo and Blue Grass facilities. The DOD contracted with Bechtel Parsons to design and operate pilot plants for this purpose. As part of the NRC efforts to assist the DOD with its chemical demilitarization efforts, the Department requested a review and assessment of the Bechtel designs for both plants. An earlier report presented an assessment of the Pueblo design. This report provides a review of the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant based on review of data and information about the initial design and some intermediate design data. Among other topics, the report presents technical risk assessment issues, an analysis of delivery and disassembly operations and of agent destruction core processes, and an examination of waste treatment.

Leading Change In Multiple Contexts by Gill Robinson Hickman

Title Leading Change in Multiple Contexts
Author Gill Robinson Hickman
Publisher SAGE Publications
Release Date 2009-07-15
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 336
ISBN 9781483300047
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The first book to bring together both leadership and change theories, concepts, and processes, Leading Change in Multiple Contexts uses a consistent framework and the latest research to help readers understand and apply the concepts and practices of leading change. Key Features Brings together leadership and change concepts and practices in five distinct contexts—organizational, community, political, social change, and global Draws from a wide range of classic and recent scholarship from multiple disciplines Includes the perspectives of change and leadership experts Offers real-life vignettes that provide examples of leading change in every context Provides readers with application and reflection exercises that allow them to apply leadership and change concepts to their experiences Leading Change in Multiple Contexts is designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in Change Management, Leadership, Organizational Behavior, Organizational Development, and Leadership and Change offered in departments of business, education, communication, and public administration, as well as programs focusing on leadership, public policy, community activism, and social change.

Title The Environmental Impact Statement After Two Generations
Author Michael R. Greenberg
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2013-06-17
Category Science
Total Pages 248
ISBN 9781136636264
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

This book is about a subject that Michael Greenberg has worked on and lived with for almost forty years. He was brought up in the south Bronx at a time when his neighborhood suffered from terrible air and noise pollution, and domestic waste went untreated into the Hudson River. For him, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was a blessing. It included an ethical position about the environment, and the law required some level of accountability in the form of an environmental impact statement, or EIS. After forty years of thinking about and working with NEPA and the EIS process, Greenberg decided to conduct his own evaluation from the perspective of a person trained in science who focuses on environmental and environmental health policies. This book of carefully chosen real case studies goes beyond the familiar checklists of what to do, and shows students and practitioners alike what really happens during the creation and implementation of an EIS.

Explaining Risk Analysis by Michael R Greenberg

Title Explaining Risk Analysis
Author Michael R Greenberg
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2016-09-13
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 320
ISBN 9781317298410
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

Risk analysis is not a narrowly defined set of applications. Rather, it is widely used to assess and manage a plethora of hazards that threaten dire implications. However, too few people actually understand what risk analysis can help us accomplish and, even among experts, knowledge is often limited to one or two applications. Explaining Risk Analysis frames risk analysis as a holistic planning process aimed at making better risk-informed decisions and emphasizing the connections between the parts. This framework requires an understanding of basic terms, including explanations of why there is no universal agreement about what risk means, much less risk assessment, risk management and risk analysis. Drawing on a wide range of case studies, the book illustrates the ways in which risk analysis can help lead to better decisions in a variety of scenarios, including the destruction of chemical weapons, management of nuclear waste and the response to passenger rail threats. The book demonstrates how the risk analysis process and the data, models and processes used in risk analysis will clarify, rather than obfuscate, decision-makers’ options. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of risk assessment, risk management, public health, environmental science, environmental economics and environmental psychology.

Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility by National Research Council

Title Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 1999-12-24
Category Science
Total Pages 94
ISBN 9780309068826
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

This report reviews the status of the U.S. Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) operations at Tooele, Utah, with respect to previous recommendations and observations made by the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee). The committee recognizes actions that have satisfied recommendations, identifies recommendations that require further action, and provides additional recommendations for improving the overall CSDP performance at the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF), Tooele, Utah, and other sites.

Title A Modified Baseline Incineration Process for Mustard Projectiles at Pueblo Chemical Depot
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 2001-09-27
Category Science
Total Pages 64
ISBN 0309183324
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

The United States has maintained a stockpile of chemical warfare agents and munitions since World War I. The Army leadership has sought outside, unbiased advice on how best to dispose of the stockpile. In 1987, at the request of the Under Secretary of the Army, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) to provide scientific and technical advice and counsel on the CSDP. This report is concerned with the technology selection for the Pueblo site, where only munitions containing mustard agent are stored. The report assesses a modified baseline process, a slightly simplified version of the baseline incineration system that was used to dispose of mustard munitions on Johnston Island. A second NRC committee is reviewing two neutralization-based technologies for possible use at Pueblo. The evaluation in this report is intended to assist authorities making the selection. It should also help the public and other non-Army stakeholders understand the modified baseline process and make sound judgments about it.

Title Carbon Filtration for Reducing Emissions from Chemical Agent Incineration
Author National Research Council
Publisher National Academies Press
Release Date 1999-09-12
Category Science
Total Pages 102
ISBN 9780309065955
Language English, Spanish, and French
GET BOOK

Book Summary:

This report reviews the Army's evaluation of carbon filters for use in the baseline incineration PAS, as well as the Army's change management process (the Army's tool for evaluating major equipment and operational changes to disposal facilities). In preparing this report, members of the Stockpile Committee evaluated exhaust gas emissions testing at the two operating baseline incineration systems, JACADS and the TOCDF; evaluated the development of the dilute SOPC carbon filter simulation model; and evaluated the conceptual design of a modified PAS with an activated carbon filter. The two major risk assessments conducted for each continental disposal site that use the baseline system, namely, (1) the quantitative risk assessment, which evaluates the risks and consequences of accidental agent releases, and (2) the health risk assessment, which evaluates the potential effects of nonagent emissions on human health and the environment, were also examined.