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Tulsa 1921 by Randy Krehbiel

Title Tulsa 1921
Author Randy Krehbiel
Publisher University of Oklahoma Press
Release Date 2019-09-19
Category History
Total Pages 328
ISBN 9780806165516
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In 1921 Tulsa’s Greenwood District, known then as the nation’s “Black Wall Street,” was one of the most prosperous African American communities in the United States. But on May 31 of that year, a white mob, inflamed by rumors that a young black man had attempted to rape a white teenage girl, invaded Greenwood. By the end of the following day, thousands of homes and businesses lay in ashes, and perhaps as many as three hundred people were dead. Tulsa, 1921 shines new light into the shadows that have long been cast over this extraordinary instance of racial violence. With the clarity and descriptive power of a veteran journalist, author Randy Krehbiel digs deep into the events and their aftermath and investigates decades-old questions about the local culture at the root of what one writer has called a white-led pogrom. Krehbiel analyzes local newspaper accounts in an unprecedented effort to gain insight into the minds of contemporary Tulsans. In the process he considers how the Tulsa World, the Tulsa Tribune, and other publications contributed to the circumstances that led to the disaster and helped solidify enduring white justifications for it. Some historians have dismissed local newspapers as too biased to be of value for an honest account, but by contextualizing their reports, Krehbiel renders Tulsa’s papers an invaluable resource, highlighting the influence of news media on our actions in the present and our memories of the past. The Tulsa Massacre was a result of racial animosity and mistrust within a culture of political and economic corruption. In its wake, black Tulsans were denied redress and even the right to rebuild on their own property, yet they ultimately prevailed and even prospered despite systemic racism and the rise during the 1920s of the second Ku Klux Klan. As Krehbiel considers the context and consequences of the violence and devastation, he asks, Has the city—indeed, the nation—exorcised the prejudices that led to this tragedy?

Riot And Remembrance by James S. Hirsch

Title Riot and Remembrance
Author James S. Hirsch
Publisher Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Release Date 2014-05-13
Category History
Total Pages 368
ISBN 9780544374188
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A best-selling author investigates the causes of the twentieth century's deadliest race riot and how its legacy has scarred and shaped a community over the past eight decades. On a warm night in May 1921, thousands of whites, many deputized by the local police, swarmed through the Greenwood section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, killing scores of blacks, looting, and ultimately burning the neighborhood to the ground. In the aftermath, as many as 300 were dead, and 6,000 Greenwood residents were herded into detention camps. James Hirsch focuses on the de facto apartheid that brought about the Greenwood riot and informed its eighty-year legacy, offering an unprecedented examination of how a calamity spawns bigotry and courage and how it has propelled one community's belated search for justice. Tulsa's establishment and many victims strove to forget the events of 1921, destroying records pertaining to the riot and refusing even to talk about it. This cover-up was carried through the ensuing half-century with surprising success. Even so, the riot wounded Tulsa profoundly, as Hirsch demonstrates in a compelling combination of history, journalism, and character study. White Tulsa thrived, and the city became a stronghold of Klan activity as workingmen and high civic officials alike flocked to the Hooded Order. Meanwhile, Greenwood struggled as residents strove to rebuild their neighborhood despite official attempts to thwart them. As the decades passed, the economic and social divides between white and black worlds deepened. Through the 1960s and 1970s, urban renewal helped to finish what the riot had started, blighting Greenwood. Paradoxically, however, the events of 1921 saved Tulsa from the racial strife that befell so many other American cities in the 1960s, as Tulsans white and black would do almost anything to avoid a reprise of the riot. Hirsch brings the riot's legacy up to the present day, tracing how the memory of the massacre gradually revived as academics and ordinary citizens of all colors worked tirelessly to uncover evidence of its horrors. Hirsch also highlights Tulsa's emergence at the forefront of the burgeoning debate over reparations. RIOT AND REMEMBRANCE shows vividly, chillingly, how the culture of Jim Crow caused not only the grisly incidents of 1921 but also those of Rosewood, Selma, and Watts, as well as less widely known atrocities. It also addresses the cruel irony that underlies today's battles over affirmative action and reparations: that justice and reconciliation are often incompatible goals. Finally, Hirsch details how Tulsa may be overcoming its horrific legacy, as factions long sundered at last draw together.

Death In A Promised Land by Scott Ellsworth

Title Death in a Promised Land
Author Scott Ellsworth
Publisher LSU Press
Release Date 1992-01-01
Category History
Total Pages 184
ISBN 0807117676
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Widely believed to be the most extreme incidence of white racial violence against African Americans in modern United States history, the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre resulted in the destruction of over one thousand Black-owned businesses and homes as well as the murder of between fifty and three hundred Black residents. Exhaustively researched and critically acclaimed, Scott Ellsworth’s Death in a Promised Land is the definitive account of the Tulsa race riot and its aftermath, in which much of the history of the destruction and violence was covered up. It is the compelling story of racial ideologies, southwestern politics, and incendiary journalism, and of an embattled black community’s struggle to hold onto its land and freedom. More than just the chronicle of one of the nation’s most devastating racial pogroms, this critically acclaimed study of American race relations is, above all, a gripping story of terror and lawlessness, and of courage, heroism, and human perseverance.

Tulsa 1921 by Randy Krehbiel

Title Tulsa 1921
Author Randy Krehbiel
Publisher University of Oklahoma Press
Release Date 2019-09-19
Category History
Total Pages 328
ISBN 9780806165837
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In 1921 Tulsa’s Greenwood District, known then as the nation’s “Black Wall Street,” was one of the most prosperous African American communities in the United States. But on May 31 of that year, a white mob, inflamed by rumors that a young black man had attempted to rape a white teenage girl, invaded Greenwood. By the end of the following day, thousands of homes and businesses lay in ashes, and perhaps as many as three hundred people were dead. Tulsa, 1921 shines new light into the shadows that have long been cast over this extraordinary instance of racial violence. With the clarity and descriptive power of a veteran journalist, author Randy Krehbiel digs deep into the events and their aftermath and investigates decades-old questions about the local culture at the root of what one writer has called a white-led pogrom. Krehbiel analyzes local newspaper accounts in an unprecedented effort to gain insight into the minds of contemporary Tulsans. In the process he considers how the Tulsa World, the Tulsa Tribune, and other publications contributed to the circumstances that led to the disaster and helped solidify enduring white justifications for it. Some historians have dismissed local newspapers as too biased to be of value for an honest account, but by contextualizing their reports, Krehbiel renders Tulsa’s papers an invaluable resource, highlighting the influence of news media on our actions in the present and our memories of the past. The Tulsa Massacre was a result of racial animosity and mistrust within a culture of political and economic corruption. In its wake, black Tulsans were denied redress and even the right to rebuild on their own property, yet they ultimately prevailed and even prospered despite systemic racism and the rise during the 1920s of the second Ku Klux Klan. As Krehbiel considers the context and consequences of the violence and devastation, he asks, Has the city—indeed, the nation—exorcised the prejudices that led to this tragedy?

Reconstructing The Dreamland by Alfred L. Brophy

Title Reconstructing the Dreamland
Author Alfred L. Brophy
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2003-04-10
Category Social Science
Total Pages 208
ISBN 0198036493
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The 1921 Tulsa Race Riot was the country's bloodiest civil disturbance of the century. Thirty city blocks were burned to the ground, perhaps 150 died, and the prosperous black community of Greenwood, Oklahoma, was turned to rubble. Brophy draws on his own extensive research into contemporary accounts and court documents to chronicle this devastating riot, showing how and why the rule of law quickly eroded. Brophy shines his lights on mob violence and racism run amok, both on the night of the riot and the following morning. Equally important, he shows how the city government and police not only permitted looting, shootings, and the burning of Greenwood, but actively participated in it by deputizing white citizens haphazardly, giving out guns and badges, or sending men to arm themselves. Likewise, the National Guard acted unconstitutionally, arresting every black resident they found, leaving property vulnerable to the white mob. Brophy's stark narrative concludes with a discussion of reparations for victims of the riot through lawsuits and legislative action. That case has implications for other reparations movements, including reparations for slavery. "Recovers a largely forgotten history of black activism in one of the grimmest periods of race relations.... Linking history with advocacy, Brophy also offers a reasoned defense of reparations for the riot's victims."--Washington Post Book World

Black Wall Street by Hannibal B. Johnson

Title Black Wall Street
Author Hannibal B. Johnson
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2007-08-01
Category History
Total Pages 307
ISBN 1934645389
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Early in the twentieth century, the black community in Tulsa- the "Greenwood District"- became a nationally renowned entrepreneurial center. Frequently referred to as "The Black Wall Street of America," the Greenwood District attracted pioneers from all over America who sought new opportunities and fresh challenges. Legal segregation forced blacks to do business among themselves. The Greenwood district prospered as dollars circulated within the black community. But fear and jealousy swelled in the greater Tulsa community. The alleged assault of a white woman by a black man triggered unprecedented civil unrest. The worst riot in American history, the Tulsa Race Riot pf 1921 destroyed people, property, hopes, and dreams. Hundreds of people died or were injured. Property damage ran into the millions. The Greenwood District burned to the ground. Ever courageous, the Greenwood District pioneers rebuilt and better than ever. By 1942, some 242 businesses called the Greenwood district home. Having experienced decline in the '60s, '70s, and early '80s, the area is now poised for yet another renaissance. Black Wall Street speaks to the triumph of the human spirit.

The Burning by Tim Madigan

Title The Burning
Author Tim Madigan
Publisher Macmillan
Release Date 2003-02
Category History
Total Pages 320
ISBN 0312302479
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

An account of the massacre at Greenwood recreates this destruction of a prosperous African American southern community near Tulsa, Oklahoma.

If We Must Die by Pat M. Carr

Title If We Must Die
Author Pat M. Carr
Publisher Texas Christian University Press
Release Date 2002
Category Fiction
Total Pages 162
ISBN 087565262X
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

When seventeen-year-old, white Berneen O'Brien moves to Tulsa and takes a job at a segregated elementary school, she becomes increasingly involved in the lives of her black colleagues and shares their experiences during the deadly race riot that destroysGreenwood in 1921.

Death In A Promised Land by Robert Andrews

Title Death in a Promised Land
Author Robert Andrews
Publisher Pocket Books
Release Date 1994
Category Fiction
Total Pages 336
ISBN 0671866494
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

CIA agent Bradford Sims discovers an explosive secret linking James Earl Ray, the man convicted of assassinating Martin Luther King, Jr., with both the KGB and the CIA. Reprint.

Tulsa Race Riot by Oklahoma Commission to Riot of 1921

Title Tulsa Race Riot
Author Oklahoma Commission to Riot of 1921
Publisher Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release Date 2001-02-28
Category
Total Pages 192
ISBN 1530785006
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 was the worst civil disturbance since the Civil War. On May 21, 1921, a group of white Oklahomans attacked the prosperous African American community, called the Greenwood District or "the Black Wall Street" in Tulsa, OK over the alleged assault of a white woman by a black man. 24 hours later more than 800 people were admitted to local hospitals, 10,000 residents were homeless, and 35 city blocks were reduced to rubble. The monetary cost of the riot was later estimated to be 26 million dollars. This report examines the events leading up to the riot, the riot itself, and the consideration of reparations for the victims.

Unspeakable by Carole Boston Weatherford

Title Unspeakable
Author Carole Boston Weatherford
Publisher Millbrook Press
Release Date 2021-02-02
Category Juvenile Nonfiction
Total Pages 32
ISBN 9781728424644
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Celebrated author Carole Boston Weatherford and illustrator Floyd Cooper provide a powerful look at the Tulsa Race Massacre, one of the worst incidents of racial violence in our nation's history. The book traces the history of African Americans in Tulsa's Greenwood district and chronicles the devastation that occurred in 1921 when a white mob attacked the Black community. News of what happened was largely suppressed, and no official investigation occurred for seventy-five years. This picture book sensitively introduces young readers to this tragedy and concludes with a call for a better future.

My Life And An Era by John Hope Franklin

Title My Life and An Era
Author John Hope Franklin
Publisher LSU Press
Release Date 1997-10-01
Category Literary Criticism
Total Pages 288
ISBN 0807125997
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

“My father’s life represented many layers of the human experience—freedman and Native American, farmer and rancher, rural educator and urban professional.”—John Hope Franklin Buck Colbert Franklin (1879–1960) led an extraordinary life; from his youth in what was then the Indian Territory to his practice of law in twentieth-century Tulsa, he was an observant witness to the changes in politics, law, daily existence, and race relations that transformed the wide-open Southwest. Fascinating in its depiction of an intelligent young man's coming of age in the days of the Land Rush and the closing of the frontier, My Life and an Era is equally important for its reporting of the triracial culture of early Oklahoma. Recalling his boyhood spent in the Chickasaw Nation, Franklin suggests that blacks fared better in Oklahoma in the days of the Indians than they did later with the white population. In addition to his insights about the social milieu, he offers youthful reminiscences of mustangs and mountain lions, of farming and ranch life, that might appear in a Western novel. After returning from college in Nashville and Atlanta, Franklin married a college classmate, studied law by mail, passed the bar, and struggled to build a practice in Springer and Ardmore in the first years of Oklahoma statehood. Eventually a successful attorney in Tulsa, he was an eyewitness to a number of important events in the Southwest, including the Tulsa race riot of 1921, which left more than 100 dead. His account clearly shows the growing racial tensions as more and more people moved into the state in the period leading up to World War II. Rounded out by an older man’s reflections on race, religion, culture, and law, My Life and an Era presents a true, firsthand account of a unique yet defining place and time in the nation's history, as told by an eloquent and impassioned writer.

Tulsa Burning by Anna Myers

Title Tulsa Burning
Author Anna Myers
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing USA
Release Date 2009-07-15
Category Juvenile Fiction
Total Pages 160
ISBN 0802721338
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The day he buried his pa, Nobe Chase lost everything-his father, his home, and his dog, Rex. Worst of all, he had to move into town to live with Sheriff Leonard-dog killer, wife stealer, and secret law-breaker of all sorts. That day, Nobe found a new purpose for his life-revenge. Hate takes over his life, burning out of control inside him. Nobe learns how dangerous hate can be when it is unleashed in a fury of fire and gunpowder during a race riot in nearby Tulsa. When the violence spills over into his hometown, Nobe must decide what kind of man he is going to become-one driven by vengeance or one driven by courage. Based on true events in Tulsa, Oklahoma, during May of 1921, Anna Myers has produced a powerful novel about a young man who must wrestle with his past and find the strength to pull free from the poisonous grip of hatred and abuse.

The Tulsa Massacre Of 1921 by Charles River Editors

Title The Tulsa Massacre of 1921
Author Charles River Editors
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2020-01-23
Category
Total Pages 42
ISBN 9798603437156
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

*Includes pictures *Includes excerpts of contemporary accounts *Includes a bibliography for further reading "Lurid flames roared and belched and licked their forked tongues into the air. Smoke ascended the sky in thick, black volumes and amid it all, the planes - now a dozen or more in number - still hummed and darted here and there with the agility of natural birds of the air." - Eyewitness account It all began on Memorial Day, May 31, 1921. Around or after 4:00 p.m. that day, a clerk at Renberg's clothing store on the first floor of the Drexel Building in Tulsa heard a woman scream. Turning in the direction of the scream, he saw a young black man running from the building. Going to the elevator, the clerk found the white elevator operator, 17-year-old Sarah Page, crying and distraught. The clerk concluded that she had been assaulted by the black man he saw running a few moments earlier and called the police. Those facts are just about the only things people agree on when it comes to the riot in Tulsa in 1921. By the time the unrest ended, an unknown number of Tulsa's black citizens were dead, over 800 people were injured, and what had been the wealthiest black community in the United States had been laid to waste. In the days after the riot, a group formed to work on rebuilding the Greenwood neighborhood, which had been all but destroyed. The former mayor of Tulsa, Judge J. Martin, declared, "Tulsa can only redeem herself from the country-wide shame and humiliation into which she is today plunged by complete restitution and rehabilitation of the destroyed black belt. The rest of the United States must know that the real citizenship of Tulsa weeps at this unspeakable crime and will make good the damage, so far as it can be done, to the last penny." However, financial assistance would be slow in coming, a jury would find that black mobs were responsible for the damage, and not a single person was ever convicted as a result of the riot. Indeed, given that racist violence directed at blacks was the norm in the Jim Crow South, and accusations of black teens or adults violating young white girls were often accepted without evidence, people barely batted an eye at the damage wrought by the riot, which would remain largely overlooked for almost 70 years. Only in the last two decades have Oklahomans reckoned with this shameful episode in their history. The Tulsa Massacre of 1921: The Controversial History and Legacy of America's Worst Race Riot examines the conditions and events that led to the riot, the damage done, and the aftermath. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Tulsa race riot of 1921 like never before.

Dreamland Burning by Jennifer Latham

Title Dreamland Burning
Author Jennifer Latham
Publisher Little, Brown Books for Young Readers
Release Date 2017-02-21
Category Young Adult Fiction
Total Pages 384
ISBN 9780316384940
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A compelling dual-narrated tale from Jennifer Latham that questions how far we've come with race relations. Some bodies won't stay buried. Some stories need to be told. When seventeen-year-old Rowan Chase finds a skeleton on her family's property, she has no idea that investigating the brutal century-old murder will lead to a summer of painful discoveries about the present and the past. Nearly one hundred years earlier, a misguided violent encounter propels seventeen-year-old Will Tillman into a racial firestorm. In a country rife with violence against blacks and a hometown segregated by Jim Crow, Will must make hard choices on a painful journey towards self discovery and face his inner demons in order to do what's right the night Tulsa burns. Through intricately interwoven alternating perspectives, Jennifer Latham's lightning-paced page-turner brings the Tulsa race riot of 1921 to blazing life and raises important questions about the complex state of US race relations--both yesterday and today.

Tulsa 1921 by Anonim

Title Tulsa 1921
Author Anonim
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2020
Category Race riots
Total Pages 128
ISBN OCLC:1190929766
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Events Of The Tulsa Disaster by Mary E. Jones Parrish

Title Events of the Tulsa Disaster
Author Mary E. Jones Parrish
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 1922*
Category African Americans
Total Pages 112
ISBN OCLC:11460136
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

An account of the Tulsa race riot of 1921 with a collection of shorter witness testimonials and a partial list of property and financial losses of its victims.

The Fires Of Greenwood by Frederick Williams

Title The Fires of Greenwood
Author Frederick Williams
Publisher Prosperity Publications, LLC
Release Date 2013-09
Category Fiction
Total Pages 394
ISBN 0970995768
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In the early morning hours of June 1, 1921, hordes of angry whites in Tulsa, Oklahoma, crossed the Frisco railroad tracks into the Greenwood section known as Black Wall Street, armed with weapons and a determination to destroy. Within a seven hour period, they managed to slaughter over three hundred African Americans, while literally burning down all the businesses and homes within a 33 block radius. This well-written, fictionalized version chronicles the events that led to one of the most horrendous slaughters of American citizens in this country's troubled racial past.

The Tulsa Race Riot by Duchess Harris

Title The Tulsa Race Riot
Author Duchess Harris
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2019-08
Category
Total Pages 48
ISBN 9781532172984
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In 1921, a race riot erupted in Tulsa, Oklahoma. White residents burned down black-owned businesses and homes. They killed approximately 300 African Americans. The Tulsa Race Riot explores the story and legacy of one of the worst race riots in US history. Easy-to-read text, vivid images, and helpful back matter give readers a clear look at this subject. Features include a table of contents, infographics, a glossary, additional resources, and an index. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Core Library is an imprint of Abdo Publishing, a division of ABDO.