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Black Wall Street by Hannibal B. Johnson

Title Black Wall Street
Author Hannibal B. Johnson
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2007-08-01
Category History
Total Pages 307
ISBN 1934645389
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Early in the twentieth century, the black community in Tulsa- the "Greenwood District"- became a nationally renowned entrepreneurial center. Frequently referred to as "The Black Wall Street of America," the Greenwood District attracted pioneers from all over America who sought new opportunities and fresh challenges. Legal segregation forced blacks to do business among themselves. The Greenwood district prospered as dollars circulated within the black community. But fear and jealousy swelled in the greater Tulsa community. The alleged assault of a white woman by a black man triggered unprecedented civil unrest. The worst riot in American history, the Tulsa Race Riot pf 1921 destroyed people, property, hopes, and dreams. Hundreds of people died or were injured. Property damage ran into the millions. The Greenwood District burned to the ground. Ever courageous, the Greenwood District pioneers rebuilt and better than ever. By 1942, some 242 businesses called the Greenwood district home. Having experienced decline in the '60s, '70s, and early '80s, the area is now poised for yet another renaissance. Black Wall Street speaks to the triumph of the human spirit.

My Life And An Era by John Hope Franklin

Title My Life and An Era
Author John Hope Franklin
Publisher LSU Press
Release Date 1997-10-01
Category Literary Criticism
Total Pages 288
ISBN 0807125997
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

“My father’s life represented many layers of the human experience—freedman and Native American, farmer and rancher, rural educator and urban professional.”—John Hope Franklin Buck Colbert Franklin (1879–1960) led an extraordinary life; from his youth in what was then the Indian Territory to his practice of law in twentieth-century Tulsa, he was an observant witness to the changes in politics, law, daily existence, and race relations that transformed the wide-open Southwest. Fascinating in its depiction of an intelligent young man's coming of age in the days of the Land Rush and the closing of the frontier, My Life and an Era is equally important for its reporting of the triracial culture of early Oklahoma. Recalling his boyhood spent in the Chickasaw Nation, Franklin suggests that blacks fared better in Oklahoma in the days of the Indians than they did later with the white population. In addition to his insights about the social milieu, he offers youthful reminiscences of mustangs and mountain lions, of farming and ranch life, that might appear in a Western novel. After returning from college in Nashville and Atlanta, Franklin married a college classmate, studied law by mail, passed the bar, and struggled to build a practice in Springer and Ardmore in the first years of Oklahoma statehood. Eventually a successful attorney in Tulsa, he was an eyewitness to a number of important events in the Southwest, including the Tulsa race riot of 1921, which left more than 100 dead. His account clearly shows the growing racial tensions as more and more people moved into the state in the period leading up to World War II. Rounded out by an older man’s reflections on race, religion, culture, and law, My Life and an Era presents a true, firsthand account of a unique yet defining place and time in the nation's history, as told by an eloquent and impassioned writer.

Riot And Remembrance by James S. Hirsch

Title Riot and Remembrance
Author James S. Hirsch
Publisher Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Release Date 2002
Category History
Total Pages 358
ISBN 0618340769
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Drawing on period documents and interviews with survivors and their descendants, the author of Hurricane offers a definitive account of the 1921 race riot that destroyed the Greenwood section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, leaving hundreds of black residents dead, and describes the battle for belated justice and reparations to the victims. Reprint.

The Burning by Tim Madigan

Title The Burning
Author Tim Madigan
Publisher Macmillan
Release Date 2003-02
Category History
Total Pages 297
ISBN 0312302479
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

An account of the massacre at Greenwood recreates this destruction of a prosperous African American southern community near Tulsa, Oklahoma.

The Tulsa Massacre Of 1921 by Charles River Editors

Title The Tulsa Massacre of 1921
Author Charles River Editors
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2020-01-23
Category
Total Pages 42
ISBN 9798603437156
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

*Includes pictures *Includes excerpts of contemporary accounts *Includes a bibliography for further reading "Lurid flames roared and belched and licked their forked tongues into the air. Smoke ascended the sky in thick, black volumes and amid it all, the planes - now a dozen or more in number - still hummed and darted here and there with the agility of natural birds of the air." - Eyewitness account It all began on Memorial Day, May 31, 1921. Around or after 4:00 p.m. that day, a clerk at Renberg's clothing store on the first floor of the Drexel Building in Tulsa heard a woman scream. Turning in the direction of the scream, he saw a young black man running from the building. Going to the elevator, the clerk found the white elevator operator, 17-year-old Sarah Page, crying and distraught. The clerk concluded that she had been assaulted by the black man he saw running a few moments earlier and called the police. Those facts are just about the only things people agree on when it comes to the riot in Tulsa in 1921. By the time the unrest ended, an unknown number of Tulsa's black citizens were dead, over 800 people were injured, and what had been the wealthiest black community in the United States had been laid to waste. In the days after the riot, a group formed to work on rebuilding the Greenwood neighborhood, which had been all but destroyed. The former mayor of Tulsa, Judge J. Martin, declared, "Tulsa can only redeem herself from the country-wide shame and humiliation into which she is today plunged by complete restitution and rehabilitation of the destroyed black belt. The rest of the United States must know that the real citizenship of Tulsa weeps at this unspeakable crime and will make good the damage, so far as it can be done, to the last penny." However, financial assistance would be slow in coming, a jury would find that black mobs were responsible for the damage, and not a single person was ever convicted as a result of the riot. Indeed, given that racist violence directed at blacks was the norm in the Jim Crow South, and accusations of black teens or adults violating young white girls were often accepted without evidence, people barely batted an eye at the damage wrought by the riot, which would remain largely overlooked for almost 70 years. Only in the last two decades have Oklahomans reckoned with this shameful episode in their history. The Tulsa Massacre of 1921: The Controversial History and Legacy of America's Worst Race Riot examines the conditions and events that led to the riot, the damage done, and the aftermath. Along with pictures depicting important people, places, and events, you will learn about the Tulsa race riot of 1921 like never before.

Death In A Promised Land by Scott Ellsworth

Title Death in a Promised Land
Author Scott Ellsworth
Publisher LSU Press
Release Date 1992-01-01
Category History
Total Pages 184
ISBN 0807117676
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Widely believed to be the most extreme incidence of white racial violence against African Americans in modern United States history, the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre resulted in the destruction of over one thousand black-owned businesses and homes as well as the murder of between fifty and three hundred black residents. Exhaustively researched and critically acclaimed, Scott Ellsworth’s Death in a Promised Land is the definitive account of the Tulsa race riot and its aftermath, in which much of the history of the destruction and violence was covered up. It is the compelling story of racial ideologies, southwestern politics, and incendiary journalism, and of an embattled black community’s struggle to hold onto its land and freedom. More than just the chronicle of one of the nation’s most devastating racial pogroms, this critically acclaimed study of American race relations is, above all, a gripping story of terror and lawlessness, and of courage, heroism, and human perseverance.

Unspeakable by Carole Boston Weatherford

Title Unspeakable
Author Carole Boston Weatherford
Publisher Carolrhoda Books ®
Release Date 2021-02-02
Category Juvenile Nonfiction
Total Pages 32
ISBN 9781728424644
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"A must-have"—Booklist (starred review) Celebrated author Carole Boston Weatherford and illustrator Floyd Cooper provide a powerful look at the Tulsa Race Massacre, one of the worst incidents of racial violence in our nation's history. The book traces the history of African Americans in Tulsa's Greenwood district and chronicles the devastation that occurred in 1921 when a white mob attacked the Black community. News of what happened was largely suppressed, and no official investigation occurred for seventy-five years. This picture book sensitively introduces young readers to this tragedy and concludes with a call for a better future.

Death In A Promised Land by Robert Andrews

Title Death in a Promised Land
Author Robert Andrews
Publisher Pocket Books
Release Date 1994
Category Fiction
Total Pages 336
ISBN 0671866494
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

CIA agent Bradford Sims discovers an explosive secret linking James Earl Ray, the man convicted of assassinating Martin Luther King, Jr., with both the KGB and the CIA. Reprint.

Reconstructing The Dreamland by Alfred L. Brophy

Title Reconstructing the Dreamland
Author Alfred L. Brophy
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2003-04-10
Category Social Science
Total Pages 208
ISBN 0198036493
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The 1921 Tulsa Race Riot was the country's bloodiest civil disturbance of the century. Thirty city blocks were burned to the ground, perhaps 150 died, and the prosperous black community of Greenwood, Oklahoma, was turned to rubble. Brophy draws on his own extensive research into contemporary accounts and court documents to chronicle this devastating riot, showing how and why the rule of law quickly eroded. Brophy shines his lights on mob violence and racism run amok, both on the night of the riot and the following morning. Equally important, he shows how the city government and police not only permitted looting, shootings, and the burning of Greenwood, but actively participated in it by deputizing white citizens haphazardly, giving out guns and badges, or sending men to arm themselves. Likewise, the National Guard acted unconstitutionally, arresting every black resident they found, leaving property vulnerable to the white mob. Brophy's stark narrative concludes with a discussion of reparations for victims of the riot through lawsuits and legislative action. That case has implications for other reparations movements, including reparations for slavery. "Recovers a largely forgotten history of black activism in one of the grimmest periods of race relations.... Linking history with advocacy, Brophy also offers a reasoned defense of reparations for the riot's victims."--Washington Post Book World

Tulsa Race Riot by Oklahoma Commission to Riot of 1921

Title Tulsa Race Riot
Author Oklahoma Commission to Riot of 1921
Publisher Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release Date 2001-02-28
Category
Total Pages 192
ISBN 1530785006
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 was the worst civil disturbance since the Civil War. On May 21, 1921, a group of white Oklahomans attacked the prosperous African American community, called the Greenwood District or "the Black Wall Street" in Tulsa, OK over the alleged assault of a white woman by a black man. 24 hours later more than 800 people were admitted to local hospitals, 10,000 residents were homeless, and 35 city blocks were reduced to rubble. The monetary cost of the riot was later estimated to be 26 million dollars. This report examines the events leading up to the riot, the riot itself, and the consideration of reparations for the victims.

The Burning by Tim Madigan

Title The Burning
Author Tim Madigan
Publisher St. Martin's Griffin
Release Date 2021-05-11
Category History
Total Pages 336
ISBN 1250800722
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Includes an All-New Afterword. The definitive account of America’s most horrific racial massacre, told in a compelling and unflinching narrative. The Burning is essential reading as America finally comes to terms with its racial past. When first published in 2001, society apparently wasn’t ready for such an unstinting narrative. After it was published, The Burning, like its subject matter, remained unknown to most in America. That has changed dramatically. “I began to suspect that a crucial piece remained missing from America’s long attempts at racial reconciliation,” Madigan wrote in 2001 in the author’s note to The Burning. “Too many in this country remained as ignorant as I was. Too many were just as oblivious to some of the darkest moments in our history, a legacy of which Tulsa is both a tragic example and a shameful metaphor. How can we heal when we don’t know what we’re healing from?” Now, 100 years after the massacre, Madigan brings new resonance to these questions in the reissue of this definitive work of American history. Featuring a brand new afterword, The Burning skillfully places the Tulsa Massacre in a broader historical context. Rather than an exception, the massacre was completely consistent with that time in the United States, an era of Jim Crow, widespread lynching, and racism endorsed and promulgated at the highest levels of society. Such were the foundations of the systemic racism at the root of our problems today. On the morning of June 1, 1921, a white mob numbering in the thousands marched across the railroad tracks dividing black from white in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and obliterated a black community then celebrated as one of America's most prosperous. 34 square blocks of Tulsa's Greenwood community, known then as the Negro Wall Street of America, were reduced to smoldering rubble. And now, 100 years later, the death toll of what is known as the Tulsa Race Massacre is more difficult to pinpoint. Conservative estimates put the number of dead at about 100 (75% of the victims are believed to have been black), but the actual number of casualties could be triple that. The Tulsa Race Riot Commission, formed to determine exactly what happened, has recommended that restitution to the historic Greenwood Community would be good public policy and do much to repair the emotional as well as physical scars of this most terrible incident in our shared past. With chilling details, humanity, and the narrative thrust of compelling fiction, The Burning recreates the town of Greenwood at the height of its prosperity, explores the currents of hatred, racism, and mistrust between its black residents and neighboring Tulsa's white population, narrates events leading up to and including Greenwood's annihilation, and documents the subsequent silence that surrounded the tragedy.

Title The Burning Young Readers Edition
Author Tim Madigan
Publisher Henry Holt and Company (BYR)
Release Date 2021-05-11
Category Young Adult Nonfiction
Total Pages 272
ISBN 9781250823069
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

One of the worst acts of racial violence in American history took place in 1921, when a White mob numbering in the thousands decimated the thriving Black community of Greenwood in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Burning recreates Greenwood at the height of its prosperity, explores the currents of hatred, racism, and mistrust between its Black residents and Tulsa's White population, narrates events leading up to and including Greenwood's devastation, and documents the subsequent silence that surrounded this tragedy. Delving into history that's long been pushed aside, this is the true story of Black Wall Street and the Tulsa Race Massacre, with updates that connect the historical significance of the massacre to the ongoing struggle for racial justice in America.

Tulsa 1921 by Randy Krehbiel

Title Tulsa 1921
Author Randy Krehbiel
Publisher University of Oklahoma Press
Release Date 2019-09-19
Category History
Total Pages 328
ISBN 9780806165837
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In 1921 Tulsa’s Greenwood District, known then as the nation’s “Black Wall Street,” was one of the most prosperous African American communities in the United States. But on May 31 of that year, a white mob, inflamed by rumors that a young black man had attempted to rape a white teenage girl, invaded Greenwood. By the end of the following day, thousands of homes and businesses lay in ashes, and perhaps as many as three hundred people were dead. Tulsa, 1921 shines new light into the shadows that have long been cast over this extraordinary instance of racial violence. With the clarity and descriptive power of a veteran journalist, author Randy Krehbiel digs deep into the events and their aftermath and investigates decades-old questions about the local culture at the root of what one writer has called a white-led pogrom. Krehbiel analyzes local newspaper accounts in an unprecedented effort to gain insight into the minds of contemporary Tulsans. In the process he considers how the Tulsa World, the Tulsa Tribune, and other publications contributed to the circumstances that led to the disaster and helped solidify enduring white justifications for it. Some historians have dismissed local newspapers as too biased to be of value for an honest account, but by contextualizing their reports, Krehbiel renders Tulsa’s papers an invaluable resource, highlighting the influence of news media on our actions in the present and our memories of the past. The Tulsa Massacre was a result of racial animosity and mistrust within a culture of political and economic corruption. In its wake, black Tulsans were denied redress and even the right to rebuild on their own property, yet they ultimately prevailed and even prospered despite systemic racism and the rise during the 1920s of the second Ku Klux Klan. As Krehbiel considers the context and consequences of the violence and devastation, he asks, Has the city—indeed, the nation—exorcised the prejudices that led to this tragedy?

The Tulsa Massacre Of 1921 by Matthew Williams

Title The Tulsa Massacre of 1921
Author Matthew Williams
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2020-07-28
Category
Total Pages 78
ISBN 9798670107587
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

On the March 30th, 1921 a young black man, Dick Rowland, took the elevator of the Drexel Building in Tulsa, Oklahoma to go and use the restroom designated for use by black people. Moments later, the elevator's door opened, and the operator, a young white woman by the name of Sarah Page, began screaming and the young man ran out. The next day, an incendiary article against Rowland appeared in the local newspaper detailing the incident. Shortly thereafter, chaos ensued and mobs of white people began to attack and murder members of the largely black communities. This is the story of the Tulsa Massacre of 1921 which was the worst riot in American History. The Greenwood district of Tulsa in 1921 was home to peaceful and prosperous black communities and was also known as Black Wall Street. It was a thriving community but that changed when angry white men began plundering it on the 1st of June 1921. In all, about 3,500 homes were destroyed, 10,000 black people displaced, and 300 of them were murdered. Dead bodies lay on the streets of Greenwood and some were dumped in mass graves in a local cemetery. Come and read the chilling account of what really transpired. Here's a preview of what you'll discover in this book: History of Greenwood and settling of black people The town that become a peaceful and prosperous spot Black people from around the country moving to Greenwood What really happened on March 30th 1921 in Greenwood Heightening of racial tensions between black and white people during this period The onslaught of mayhem and deployment of the National Guard Black people arrested, murdered and driven out of their homes The town of Greenwood that lay in ruin and its aftermath ... and much more! Millions of dollars worth of damage occurred and many black businesses were destroyed. The relatives of those who died, and the living survivors still seek closure. The answers seem to be on their way, but the unimaginable tragedy has tainted the chapter of race. This book presents an eye-opening analysis of the turn of events leading up to the massacre and a perspective of history that is every bit worth knowing. So, scroll up and click the "Buy now with 1-click" button to learn more!

Dreamland Burning by Jennifer Latham

Title Dreamland Burning
Author Jennifer Latham
Publisher Little, Brown Books for Young Readers
Release Date 2017-02-21
Category Young Adult Fiction
Total Pages 384
ISBN 9780316384940
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A compelling dual-narrated tale from Jennifer Latham that questions how far we've come with race relations. Some bodies won't stay buried. Some stories need to be told. When seventeen-year-old Rowan Chase finds a skeleton on her family's property, she has no idea that investigating the brutal century-old murder will lead to a summer of painful discoveries about the present and the past. Nearly one hundred years earlier, a misguided violent encounter propels seventeen-year-old Will Tillman into a racial firestorm. In a country rife with violence against blacks and a hometown segregated by Jim Crow, Will must make hard choices on a painful journey towards self discovery and face his inner demons in order to do what's right the night Tulsa burns. Through intricately interwoven alternating perspectives, Jennifer Latham's lightning-paced page-turner brings the Tulsa race riot of 1921 to blazing life and raises important questions about the complex state of US race relations--both yesterday and today.

Events Of The Tulsa Disaster by Mary E. Jones Parrish

Title Events of the Tulsa Disaster
Author Mary E. Jones Parrish
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 1922*
Category African Americans
Total Pages 112
ISBN OCLC:11460136
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

An account of the Tulsa race riot of 1921 with a collection of shorter witness testimonials and a partial list of property and financial losses of its victims.

Beyond The Rope by Karlos K. Hill

Title Beyond the Rope
Author Karlos K. Hill
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release Date 2016-07-11
Category History
Total Pages 136
ISBN 9781107044135
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book tells the story of African Americans' evolving attitudes towards lynching from the 1880s to the present. Unlike most histories of lynching, it explains how African Americans were both purveyors and victims of lynch mob violence and how this dynamic has shaped the meaning of lynching in black culture.

The Righteous Mind by Jonathan Haidt

Title The Righteous Mind
Author Jonathan Haidt
Publisher Vintage
Release Date 2013
Category Psychology
Total Pages 500
ISBN 9780307455772
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Presents a groundbreaking investigation into the origins of morality at the core of religion and politics, offering scholarly insight into the motivations behind cultural clashes that are polarizing America.

The Tulsa Race War Of 1921 by R. Halliburton

Title The Tulsa Race War of 1921
Author R. Halliburton
Publisher R & E Pub
Release Date 1975
Category Social Science
Total Pages 130
ISBN UOM:39015019110884
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Materials include documents, personal narratives, and photographs.