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Title The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy
Author Stuart Glennan
Publisher Taylor & Francis
Release Date 2017-07-06
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 474
ISBN 9781317552307
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Scientists studying the burning of stars, the evolution of species, DNA, the brain, the economy, and social change, all frequently describe their work as searching for mechanisms. Despite this fact, for much of the twentieth century philosophical discussions of the nature of mechanisms remained outside philosophy of science. The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems, and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into four Parts: Historical perspectives on mechanisms The nature of mechanisms Mechanisms and the philosophy of science Disciplinary perspectives on mechanisms. Within these Parts central topics and problems are examined, including the rise of mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century; what mechanisms are made of and how they are organized; mechanisms and laws and regularities; how mechanisms are discovered and explained; dynamical systems theory; and disciplinary perspectives from physics, chemistry, biology, biomedicine, ecology, neuroscience, and the social sciences. Essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of science, the Handbook will also be of interest to those in related fields, such as metaphysics, philosophy of psychology, and history of science.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy
Author Stuart Glennan
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2017-07-06
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 474
ISBN 9781317552291
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Scientists studying the burning of stars, the evolution of species, DNA, the brain, the economy, and social change, all frequently describe their work as searching for mechanisms. Despite this fact, for much of the twentieth century philosophical discussions of the nature of mechanisms remained outside philosophy of science. The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems, and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into four Parts: Historical perspectives on mechanisms The nature of mechanisms Mechanisms and the philosophy of science Disciplinary perspectives on mechanisms. Within these Parts central topics and problems are examined, including the rise of mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century; what mechanisms are made of and how they are organized; mechanisms and laws and regularities; how mechanisms are discovered and explained; dynamical systems theory; and disciplinary perspectives from physics, chemistry, biology, biomedicine, ecology, neuroscience, and the social sciences. Essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of science, the Handbook will also be of interest to those in related fields, such as metaphysics, philosophy of psychology, and history of science.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy
Author Stuart Glennan
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2020-07-02
Category
Total Pages 492
ISBN 0367573415
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Scientists studying the burning of stars, the evolution of species, DNA, the brain, the economy, and social change, all frequently describe their work as searching for mechanisms. Despite this fact, for much of the twentieth century philosophical discussions of the nature of mechanisms remained outside philosophy of science. The Routledge Handbook of Mechanisms and Mechanical Philosophy is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems, and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into four Parts: Historical perspectives on mechanisms The nature of mechanisms Mechanisms and the philosophy of science Disciplinary perspectives on mechanisms. Within these Parts central topics and problems are examined, including the rise of mechanical philosophy in the seventeenth century; what mechanisms are made of and how they are organized; mechanisms and laws and regularities; how mechanisms are discovered and explained; dynamical systems theory; and disciplinary perspectives from physics, chemistry, biology, biomedicine, ecology, neuroscience, and the social sciences. Essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of science, the Handbook will also be of interest to those in related fields, such as metaphysics, philosophy of psychology, and history of science.

Title The New Mechanical Philosophy
Author Stuart Glennan
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2017-08-04
Category Science
Total Pages 256
ISBN 9780191085291
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The New Mechanical Philosophy argues for a new image of nature and of science—one that understands both natural and social phenomena to be the product of mechanisms, and that casts the work of science as an effort to discover and understand those mechanisms. Drawing on an expanding literature on mechanisms in physical, life, and social sciences, Stuart Glennan offers an account of the nature of mechanisms and of the models used to represent them. A key quality of mechanisms is that they are particulars - located at different places and times, with no one just like another. The crux of the scientist's challenge is to balance the complexity and particularity of mechanisms with our need for representations of them that are abstract and general. This volume weaves together metaphysical and methodological questions about mechanisms. Metaphysically, it explores the implications of the mechanistic framework for our understanding of classical philosophical questions about the nature of objects, properties, processes, events, causal relations, natural kinds and laws of nature. Methodologically, the book explores how scientists build models to represent and understand phenomena and the mechanisms responsible for them. Using this account of representation, Glennan offers a scheme for characterizing the enormous diversity of things that scientists call mechanisms, and explores the scope and limits of mechanistic explanation.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City
Author Sharon M. Meagher
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2019-08-19
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 438
ISBN 9781317400639
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City is an outstanding reference source to this exciting subject and the first collection of its kind. Comprising 40 chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into clear sections addressing the following central topics: • Historical Philosophical Engagements with Cities • Modern and Contemporary Philosophical Theories of the City • Urban Aesthetics • Urban Politics • Citizenship • Urban Environments and the Creation/Destruction of Place. The concluding section, Urban Engagements, contains interviews with philosophers discussing their engagement with students and the wider public on issues and initiatives including experiential learning, civic and community engagement, disability rights and access, environmental degradation, professional diversity, social justice, and globalization. Essential reading for students and researchers in environmental philosophy, aesthetics, and political philosophy, The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City is also a useful resource for those in related fields, such as geography, urban studies, sociology, and political science.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information
Author Luciano Floridi
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2016-06-17
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 446
ISBN 9781317633495
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Information and communication technology occupies a central place in the modern world, with society becoming increasingly dependent on it every day. It is therefore unsurprising that it has become a growing subject area in contemporary philosophy, which relies heavily on informational concepts. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information is an outstanding reference source to the key topics and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. Comprising over thirty chapters by a team of international contributors the Handbook is divided into four parts: basic ideas quantitative and formal aspects natural and physical aspects human and semantic aspects. Within these sections central issues are examined, including probability, the logic of information, informational metaphysics, the philosophy of data and evidence, and the epistemic value of information. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Information is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy, computer science and communication studies.

Title The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Science
Author Paul Humphreys
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2016-08-04
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 960
ISBN 9780190630706
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This handbook provides both an overview of state-of-the-art scholarship in philosophy of science, as well as a guide to new directions in the discipline. Section I contains broad overviews of the main lines of research and the state of established knowledge in six principal areas of the discipline, including computational, physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, as well as general philosophy of science. Section II covers what are considered to be the traditional topics in the philosophy of science, such as causation, probability, models, ethics and values, and explanation. Section III identifies new areas of investigation that show promise of becoming important areas of research, including the philosophy of astronomy and astrophysics, data, complexity theory, neuroscience, simulations, post-Kuhnian philosophy, post-empiricist epistemology, and emergence. Most chapters are accessible to scientifically educated non-philosophers as well as to professional philosophers, and the contributors - all leading researchers in their field -- bring diverse perspectives from the North American, European, and Australasian research communities. This volume is an essential resource for scholars and students.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well Being
Author Guy Fletcher
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2015-07-30
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 546
ISBN 9781317402657
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The concept of well-being is one of the oldest and most important topics in philosophy and ethics, going back to ancient Greek philosophy. Following the boom in happiness studies in the last few years it has moved to centre stage, grabbing media headlines and the attention of scientists, psychologists and economists. Yet little is actually known about well-being and it is an idea that is often poorly articulated. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Well-Being provides a comprehensive, outstanding guide and reference source to the key topics and debates in this exciting subject. Comprising over 40 chapters by a team of international contributors, the Handbook is divided into six parts: well-being in the history of philosophy current theories of well-being, including hedonism and perfectionism examples of well-being and its opposites, including friendship and virtue and pain and death theoretical issues, such as well-being and value, harm, identity and well-being and children well-being in moral and political philosophy well-being and related subjects, including law, economics and medicine. Essential reading for students and researchers in ethics and political philosophy, it is also an invaluable resource for those in related disciplines such as psychology, politics and sociology.

Title Mechanisms and Mechanical Devices Sourcebook Fourth Edition
Author Neil Sclater
Publisher McGraw-Hill Prof Med/Tech
Release Date 2007
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 505
ISBN UOM:39015067649783
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Intended for machinery, mechanism, and device designers; engineers, technicians; and inventors and students, this fourth edition includes a glossary of machine design and kinematics terms; material on robotics; and information on nanotechnology and mechanisms applications.

Design Engineer S Handbook by Keith L. Richards

Title Design Engineer s Handbook
Author Keith L. Richards
Publisher CRC Press
Release Date 2012-10-02
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 384
ISBN 9781439892756
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Student design engineers often require a "cookbook" approach to solving certain problems in mechanical engineering. With this focus on providing simplified information that is easy to retrieve, retired mechanical design engineer Keith L. Richards has written Design Engineer’s Handbook. This book conveys the author’s insights from his decades of experience in fields ranging from machine tools to aerospace. Sharing the vast knowledge and experience that has served him well in his own career, this book is specifically aimed at the student design engineer who has left full- or part-time academic studies and requires a handy reference handbook to use in practice. Full of material often left out of many academic references, this book includes important in-depth coverage of key topics, such as: Effects of fatigue and fracture in catastrophic failures Lugs and shear pins Helical compression springs Thick-walled or compound cylinders Cam and follower design Beams and torsion Limits and fits and gear systems Use of Mohr’s circle in both analytical and experimental stress analysis This guide has been written not to replace established primary reference books but to provide a secondary handbook that gives student designers additional guidance. Helping readers determine the most efficiently designed and cost-effective solutions to a variety of engineering problems, this book offers a wealth of tables, graphs, and detailed design examples that will benefit new mechanical engineers from all walks.

Title Evaluating Evidence of Mechanisms in Medicine
Author Veli-Pekka Parkkinen
Publisher Springer
Release Date 2018-07-13
Category Medical
Total Pages 125
ISBN 9783319946108
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book is open access under a CC BY license. This book is the first to develop explicit methods for evaluating evidence of mechanisms in the field of medicine. It explains why it can be important to make this evidence explicit, and describes how to take such evidence into account in the evidence appraisal process. In addition, it develops procedures for seeking evidence of mechanisms, for evaluating evidence of mechanisms, and for combining this evaluation with evidence of association in order to yield an overall assessment of effectiveness. Evidence-based medicine seeks to achieve improved health outcomes by making evidence explicit and by developing explicit methods for evaluating it. To date, evidence-based medicine has largely focused on evidence of association produced by clinical studies. As such, it has tended to overlook evidence of pathophysiological mechanisms and evidence of the mechanisms of action of interventions. The book offers a useful guide for all those whose work involves evaluating evidence in the health sciences, including those who need to determine the effectiveness of health interventions and those who need to ascertain the effects of environmental exposures.

Title The New Mechanical Philosophy
Author Stuart Glennan
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2017-07-26
Category Science
Total Pages 256
ISBN 9780191085284
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The New Mechanical Philosophy argues for a new image of nature and of science—one that understands both natural and social phenomena to be the product of mechanisms, and that casts the work of science as an effort to discover and understand those mechanisms. Drawing on an expanding literature on mechanisms in physical, life, and social sciences, Stuart Glennan offers an account of the nature of mechanisms and of the models used to represent them. A key quality of mechanisms is that they are particulars - located at different places and times, with no one just like another. The crux of the scientist's challenge is to balance the complexity and particularity of mechanisms with our need for representations of them that are abstract and general. This volume weaves together metaphysical and methodological questions about mechanisms. Metaphysically, it explores the implications of the mechanistic framework for our understanding of classical philosophical questions about the nature of objects, properties, processes, events, causal relations, natural kinds and laws of nature. Methodologically, the book explores how scientists build models to represent and understand phenomena and the mechanisms responsible for them. Using this account of representation, Glennan offers a scheme for characterizing the enormous diversity of things that scientists call mechanisms, and explores the scope and limits of mechanistic explanation.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Colour
Author Derek H. Brown
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2020-09-27
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 500
ISBN 9781351048514
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

From David Hume’s famous puzzle about "the missing shade of blue," to current research into the science of colour, the topic of colour is an incredibly fertile region of study and debate, cutting across philosophy of mind, epistemology, metaphysics, and aesthetics, as well as psychology. Debates about the nature of our experience of colour and the nature of colour itself are central to contemporary discussion and argument in philosophy of mind and psychology, and philosophy of perception. This outstanding Handbook contains 29 specially commissioned contributions by leading philosophers and examines the most important aspects of philosophy of colour. It is organized into six parts: The Importance of Colour to Philosophy The Science and Spaces of Colour Colour Phenomena Colour Ontology Colour Experience and Epistemology Language, Categories, and Thought. The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Colour is essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of mind and psychology, epistemology, metaphysics, and aesthetics, as well as for those interested in conceptual issues in the psychology of colour.

Title The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy and Psychology of Luck
Author Ian M. Church
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2019-02-11
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 470
ISBN 9781351258746
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Luck permeates our lives, and this raises a number of pressing questions: What is luck? When we attribute luck to people, circumstances, or events, what are we attributing? Do we have any obligations to mitigate the harms done to people who are less fortunate? And to what extent is deserving praise or blame affected by good or bad luck? Although acquiring a true belief by an uneducated guess involves a kind of luck that precludes knowledge, does all luck undermine knowledge? The academic literature has seen growing, interdisciplinary interest in luck, and this volume brings together and explains the most important areas of this research. It consists of 39 newly commissioned chapters, written by an internationally acclaimed team of philosophers and psychologists, for a readership of students and researchers. Its coverage is divided into six sections: I: The History of Luck II: The Nature of Luck III: Moral Luck IV: Epistemic Luck V: The Psychology of Luck VI: Future Research. The chapters cover a wide range of topics, from the problem of moral luck, to anti-luck epistemology, to the relationship between luck attributions and cognitive biases, to meta-questions regarding the nature of luck itself, to a range of other theoretical and empirical questions. By bringing this research together, the Handbook serves as both a touchstone for understanding the relevant issues and a first port of call for future research on luck.

Title The Routledge Handbook of Vocabulary Studies
Author Stuart Webb
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2019-07-30
Category Language Arts & Disciplines
Total Pages 598
ISBN 9781000012385
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Routledge Handbook of Vocabulary Studies provides a cutting-edge survey of current scholarship in this area. Divided into four sections, which cover understanding vocabulary; approaches to teaching and learning vocabulary; measuring knowledge of vocabulary; and key issues in teaching, researching, and measuring vocabulary, this Handbook: • brings together a wide range of approaches to learning words to provide clarity on how best vocabulary might be taught and learned; • provides a comprehensive discussion of the key issues and challenges in vocabulary studies, with research taken from the past 40 years; • includes chapters on both formulaic language as well as single-word items; • features original contributions from a range of internationally renowned scholars as well as academics at the forefront of innovative research. The Routledge Handbook of Vocabulary Studies is an essential text for those interested in teaching, learning, and researching vocabulary.

Causality by Phyllis Illari

Title Causality
Author Phyllis Illari
Publisher OUP Oxford
Release Date 2014-10-02
Category Mathematics
Total Pages 336
ISBN 9780191639685
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Head hits cause brain damage - but not always. Should we ban sport to protect athletes? Exposure to electromagnetic fields is strongly associated with cancer development - does that mean exposure causes cancer? Should we encourage old fashioned communication instead of mobile phones to reduce cancer rates? According to popular wisdom, the Mediterranean diet keeps you healthy. Is this belief scientifically sound? Should public health bodies encourage consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables? Severe financial constraints on research and public policy, media pressure, and public anxiety make such questions of immense current concern not just to philosophers but to scientists, governments, public bodies, and the general public. In the last decade there has been an explosion of theorizing about causality in philosophy, and also in the sciences. This literature is both fascinating and important, but it is involved and highly technical. This makes it inaccessible to many who would like to use it, philosophers and scientists alike. This book is an introduction to philosophy of causality - one that is highly accessible: to scientists unacquainted with philosophy, to philosophers unacquainted with science, and to anyone else lost in the labyrinth of philosophical theories of causality. It presents key philosophical accounts, concepts and methods, using examples from the sciences to show how to apply philosophical debates to scientific problems.

The Mechanical World by Beate Krickel

Title The Mechanical World
Author Beate Krickel
Publisher Springer
Release Date 2019-01-04
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 163
ISBN 9783030036294
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This monograph examines the metaphysical commitments of the new mechanistic philosophy, a way of thinking that has returned to center stage. It challenges a variant of reductionism with regard to higher-level phenomena, which has crystallized as a default position among these so-called New Mechanists. Furthermore, it opposes those philosophers who reject the possibility of interlevel causation. Contemporary philosophers believe that the explanation of scientific phenomena requires the discovery of relevant mechanisms. As a result, new mechanists are, in the main, concerned solely with epistemological questions. But, the author argues, their most central claims rely on metaphysical assumptions. Thus, they must also take into account metaphysics, a system of thought concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world around it. This branch of philosophy does indeed matter to the empirical sciences. The chapters investigate the nature of mechanisms, their components, and the ways in which they can bring about different phenomena. In addition, the author develops a novel account of causation in terms of activities. The analysis provides the basis for many further research projects on mechanisms and their relations to, for example, the mind-body problem, realization, multiple realization, natural kinds, causation, laws of nature, counterfactuals, and scientific levels.

Title Understanding Philosophy of Science
Author James Ladyman
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2012-08-06
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 304
ISBN 9781134597901
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Few can imagine a world without telephones or televisions; many depend on computers and the Internet as part of daily life. Without scientific theory, these developments would not have been possible. In this exceptionally clear and engaging introduction to philosophy of science, James Ladyman explores the philosophical questions that arise when we reflect on the nature of the scientific method and the knowledge it produces. He discusses whether fundamental philosophical questions about knowledge and reality might be answered by science, and considers in detail the debate between realists and antirealists about the extent of scientific knowledge. Along the way, central topics in philosophy of science, such as the demarcation of science from non-science, induction, confirmation and falsification, the relationship between theory and observation and relativism are all addressed. Important and complex current debates over underdetermination, inference to the best explaination and the implications of radical theory change are clarified and clearly explained for those new to the subject.

Title The SAGE Handbook of the Philosophy of Social Sciences
Author Ian C Jarvie
Publisher SAGE
Release Date 2011-02-17
Category Social Science
Total Pages 772
ISBN 9781446209714
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

- what is the relationship between the social sciences and the natural sciences? - where do today's dominant approaches to doing social science come from? - what are the main fissures and debates in contemporary social scientific thought? - how are we to make sense of seemingly contrasting approaches to how social scientists find out about the world and justify their claims to have knowledge of it? In this exciting handbook, Ian Jarvie and Jesús Zamora-Bonilla have put together a wide-ranging and authoritative overview of the main philosophical currents and traditions at work in the social sciences today. Starting with the history of social scientific thought, this handbook sets out to explore that core fundamentals of social science practice, from issues of ontology and epistemology to issues of practical method. Along the way it investigates such notions as paradigm, empiricism, postmodernism, naturalism, language, agency, power, culture, and causality. Bringing together in one volume leading authorities in the field from around the world, this book will be a must-have for any serious scholar or student of the social sciences.

Evaluation For The 21st Century by Eleanor Chelimsky

Title Evaluation for the 21st Century
Author Eleanor Chelimsky
Publisher SAGE
Release Date 1997-01-28
Category Education
Total Pages 542
ISBN 9780761906117
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Evaluation for the 21st Century features thoughtfully written introductions to each of the main sections that provide a context and synthesis of the various evaluators' chapters. After reading this groundbreaking book, researchers and practitioners will be able to recognize these new developments in evaluation as they encounter them, place them in context, and incorporate them into their own evaluation professions and practices.