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Title Techniques of Deductive Inference
Author Hugues Leblanc
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 1966
Category Logic, Symbolic and mathematical
Total Pages 216
ISBN UCAL:B4396217
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Title Theories of Scientific Method
Author Robert Nola
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2014-12-18
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 240
ISBN 9781317493488
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this tacit understanding of method is, rather than leave it as some unfathomable mystery. They robustly defend the idea that there is such a thing as scientific method and show how this might be legitimated. This book begins with the question of what methodology might mean and explores the notions of values, rules and principles, before investigating how methodologists have sought to show that our scientific methods are rational. Part 2 of this book sets out some principles of inductive method and examines its alternatives including abduction, IBE, and hypothetico-deductivism. Part 3 introduces probabilistic modes of reasoning, particularly Bayesianism in its various guises, and shows how it is able to give an account of many of the values and rules of method. Part 4 considers the ideas of philosophers who have proposed distinctive theories of method such as Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend and Part 5 continues this theme by considering philosophers who have proposed naturalised theories of method such as Quine, Laudan and Rescher. This book offers readers a comprehensive introduction to the idea of scientific method and a wide-ranging discussion of how historians of science, philosophers of science and scientists have grappled with the question over the last fifty years.

Research Methods Knowledge Base by William M. K. Trochim

Title Research Methods Knowledge Base
Author William M. K. Trochim
Publisher Atomic Dog Publishing
Release Date 2001-01-01
Category Social Science
Total Pages 363
ISBN 0970138598
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Title Statistics in Science
Author R. Cooke
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date 2012-12-06
Category Mathematics
Total Pages 200
ISBN 9789400906198
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

An inference may be defined as a passage of thought according to some method. In the theory of knowledge it is customary to distinguish deductive and non-deductive inferences. Deductive inferences are truth preserving, that is, the truth of the premises is preserved in the con clusion. As a result, the conclusion of a deductive inference is already 'contained' in the premises, although we may not know this fact until the inference is performed. Standard examples of deductive inferences are taken from logic and mathematics. Non-deductive inferences need not preserve truth, that is, 'thought may pass' from true premises to false conclusions. Such inferences can be expansive, or, ampliative in the sense that the performances of such inferences actually increases our putative knowledge. Standard non-deductive inferences do not really exist, but one may think of elementary inductive inferences in which conclusions regarding the future are drawn from knowledge of the past. Since the body of scientific knowledge is increasing, it is obvious that the method of science must allow non-deductive as well as deductive inferences. Indeed, the explosive growth of science in recent times points to a prominent role for the former. Philosophers of science have long tried to isolate and study the non-deductive inferences in science. The inevitability of such inferences one the one hand, juxtaposed with the poverty of all efforts to identify them, constitutes one of the major cognitive embarrassments of our time.

Title Optimization Methods for Logical Inference
Author Vijay Chandru
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Release Date 2011-09-26
Category Mathematics
Total Pages 365
ISBN 9781118031414
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Merging logic and mathematics in deductive inference-an innovative,cutting-edge approach. Optimization methods for logical inference? Absolutely, say VijayChandru and John Hooker, two major contributors to this rapidlyexpanding field. And even though "solving logical inferenceproblems with optimization methods may seem a bit like eatingsauerkraut with chopsticks. . . it is the mathematical structure ofa problem that determines whether an optimization model can helpsolve it, not the context in which the problem occurs." Presenting powerful, proven optimization techniques for logicinference problems, Chandru and Hooker show how optimization modelscan be used not only to solve problems in artificial intelligenceand mathematical programming, but also have tremendous applicationin complex systems in general. They survey most of the recentresearch from the past decade in logic/optimization interfaces,incorporate some of their own results, and emphasize the types oflogic most receptive to optimization methods-propositional logic,first order predicate logic, probabilistic and related logics,logics that combine evidence such as Dempster-Shafer theory, rulesystems with confidence factors, and constraint logic programmingsystems. Requiring no background in logic and clearly explaining all topicsfrom the ground up, Optimization Methods for Logical Inference isan invaluable guide for scientists and students in diverse fields,including operations research, computer science, artificialintelligence, decision support systems, and engineering.

Title Encyclopedia of Research Design
Author Neil J. Salkind
Publisher SAGE
Release Date 2010-06-22
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 1776
ISBN 9781412961271
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"Comprising more than 500 entries, the Encyclopedia of Research Design explains how to make decisions about research design, undertake research projects in an ethical manner, interpret and draw valid inferences from data, and evaluate experiment design strategies and results. Two additional features carry this encyclopedia far above other works in the field: bibliographic entries devoted to significant articles in the history of research design and reviews of contemporary tools, such as software and statistical procedures, used to analyze results. It covers the spectrum of research design strategies, from material presented in introductory classes to topics necessary in graduate research; it addresses cross- and multidisciplinary research needs, with many examples drawn from the social and behavioral sciences, neurosciences, and biomedical and life sciences; it provides summaries of advantages and disadvantages of often-used strategies; and it uses hundreds of sample tables, figures, and equations based on real-life cases."--Publisher's description.

Title Elements of Deductive Inference
Author Joseph Bessie
Publisher Wadsworth Publishing Company
Release Date 2000
Category Mathematics
Total Pages 479
ISBN 0534551211
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The text covers elementary logic, from statement logic through relational logic with identity and function symbols. The authors acquaint students with formal techniques at a level appropriate for undergraduates, but extends far enough and deep enough into the subject that it is suitable for a brief first-year graduate course. The text covers full and brief truth tables, and presents the method of truth (consistency) trees and natural deduction for the whole of elementary logic. The text's organization allows instructors to cover just statement logic, or statement logic combined with various extensions into predicate logic: monadic logic with or without identity, or the preceding plus relational logic with or without identity and with or without function symbols. At each stage, the instructor may elect to pursue truth trees and/or natural deduction. A final chapter provides a perspective for further study and applications of logic. The text may be used with or without the accompanying software.

Deductive Logic by David S. Clarke

Title Deductive Logic
Author David S. Clarke
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 1973
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 247
ISBN UOM:39015008975081
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This introduction to the basic forms of deductive inference as evaluated by methods of modern symbolic logic is de­signed for sophomore-junior-level stu­dents ready to specialize in the study of deductive logic. It can be used also for an introductory logic course. The inde­pendence of many sections allows the instructor utmost flexibility. The text consists of eight chapters, the first six of which are designed to intro­duce the student to basic topics of sen­tence and predicate logic. The last two chapters extend the procedures of the first six to alethic modal logic, the logic of imperatives, and deontic logic. Throughout the text there is an attempt to relate symbolic techniques to issues in the philosophy of logic.

The Principles Of Science by William Stanley Jevons

Title The Principles of Science
Author William Stanley Jevons
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 1877
Category Logic
Total Pages 786
ISBN HARVARD:HN24A9
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Title Philosophy of Statistics
Author Anonim
Publisher Elsevier
Release Date 2011-05-31
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 1260
ISBN 0080930964
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling “restricted by their disciplines or thinking “piecemeal in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers’ favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines. Provides a bridge between philosophy and current scientific findings Covers theory and applications Encourages multi-disciplinary dialogue

Deductive Logic by David S. Clarke

Title Deductive Logic
Author David S. Clarke
Publisher University Press of America
Release Date 1998
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 408
ISBN 0761809228
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Deductive Logic is designed as an intermediate-level text directed at upper-division students from philosophy and the humanities. Its focus is exclusively on deductive logic, avoiding altogether topics such as informal reasoning and scientific method normally included in introductory logic courses. Its exposition of logical topics is informal, with emphasis on explaining the basic concepts and procedures of modern symbolic logic in the simplest and most intuitive manner possible rather than on developing a rigorous formal system and providing proofs of its properties. The fact that the text presupposes a course offered to philosophy students and serves to introduce them to logic as the "language of philosophy" has strongly influenced the selection of topics. The topics here are controversial, and the problems not easily resolved, but this text strives to relate the formal logical structures introduced to issues of philosophic interest.

Title Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning
Author Norbert M. Seel
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date 2011-10-05
Category Education
Total Pages 3536
ISBN 9781441914279
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Over the past century, educational psychologists and researchers have posited many theories to explain how individuals learn, i.e. how they acquire, organize and deploy knowledge and skills. The 20th century can be considered the century of psychology on learning and related fields of interest (such as motivation, cognition, metacognition etc.) and it is fascinating to see the various mainstreams of learning, remembered and forgotten over the 20th century and note that basic assumptions of early theories survived several paradigm shifts of psychology and epistemology. Beyond folk psychology and its naïve theories of learning, psychological learning theories can be grouped into some basic categories, such as behaviorist learning theories, connectionist learning theories, cognitive learning theories, constructivist learning theories, and social learning theories. Learning theories are not limited to psychology and related fields of interest but rather we can find the topic of learning in various disciplines, such as philosophy and epistemology, education, information science, biology, and – as a result of the emergence of computer technologies – especially also in the field of computer sciences and artificial intelligence. As a consequence, machine learning struck a chord in the 1980s and became an important field of the learning sciences in general. As the learning sciences became more specialized and complex, the various fields of interest were widely spread and separated from each other; as a consequence, even presently, there is no comprehensive overview of the sciences of learning or the central theoretical concepts and vocabulary on which researchers rely. The Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning provides an up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the specific terms mostly used in the sciences of learning and its related fields, including relevant areas of instruction, pedagogy, cognitive sciences, and especially machine learning and knowledge engineering. This modern compendium will be an indispensable source of information for scientists, educators, engineers, and technical staff active in all fields of learning. More specifically, the Encyclopedia provides fast access to the most relevant theoretical terms provides up-to-date, broad and authoritative coverage of the most important theories within the various fields of the learning sciences and adjacent sciences and communication technologies; supplies clear and precise explanations of the theoretical terms, cross-references to related entries and up-to-date references to important research and publications. The Encyclopedia also contains biographical entries of individuals who have substantially contributed to the sciences of learning; the entries are written by a distinguished panel of researchers in the various fields of the learning sciences.

Title The Logic of Scientific Inference
Author Anonim
Publisher Macmillan International Higher Education
Release Date 1979-08-31
Category
Total Pages 145
ISBN 9781349161546
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Investigating The Social World by Russell K. Schutt

Title Investigating the Social World
Author Russell K. Schutt
Publisher SAGE Publications
Release Date 2018-01-03
Category Social Science
Total Pages 728
ISBN 9781506361215
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The author is a proud sponsor of the 2020 SAGE Keith Roberts Teaching Innovations Award—enabling graduate students and early career faculty to attend the annual ASA pre-conference teaching and learning workshop. In the Ninth Edition of his leading social research text, Russell K. Schutt, an award-winning researcher and teacher, continues to make the field come alive with current, compelling examples of high quality research and the latest innovations in research methodology, along with a clear and comprehensive introduction to the logic and techniques of social science research. Through numerous hands-on exercises that promote learning by doing, Investigating the Social World helps students to understand research methods as an integrated whole. Using examples from research on contemporary social issues, the text underscores the value of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, and the need to make ethical research decisions. Investigating the Social World develops the critical skills necessary to evaluate published research, and to carry out one’s own original research. A Complete Teaching & Learning Package SAGE Premium Video Included in the interactive eBook! SAGE Premium Video tools and resources boost comprehension and bolster analysis.Learn more. Interactive eBook Includes access to multimedia tools and much more! Save when you bundle the interactive eBook with the new edition Order using bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-0888-3. Learn more. SAGE coursepacks FREE! Easily import our quality instructor and student resource content, including resources from ASA’s TRAILS, into your school’s learning management system (LMS) and save time. Learn more. SAGE edge FREE online resources for students that make learning easier.See how your students benefit. SPSS Student Software Package Investigating the Social World with SAGE IBM® SPSS® Statistics v24.0 Student Version and SAVE! – Bundle ISBN: 978-1-5443-3426-4

Title Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications
Author Timothy J. Ross
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Release Date 2005-04-08
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 650
ISBN 9780470860762
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Title Machine Learning Methods for Commonsense Reasoning Processes Interactive Models
Author Naidenova, Xenia
Publisher IGI Global
Release Date 2009-10-31
Category Computers
Total Pages 424
ISBN 9781605668116
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book suggests that classification is a key to human commonsense reasoning and transforms traditional considerations of data and knowledge communications, presenting an effective classification of logical rules used in the modeling of commonsense reasoning.

Title Statistics in Science
Author R. Cooke
Publisher Springer
Release Date 2011-10-12
Category Mathematics
Total Pages 200
ISBN 940090620X
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

An inference may be defined as a passage of thought according to some method. In the theory of knowledge it is customary to distinguish deductive and non-deductive inferences. Deductive inferences are truth preserving, that is, the truth of the premises is preserved in the con clusion. As a result, the conclusion of a deductive inference is already 'contained' in the premises, although we may not know this fact until the inference is performed. Standard examples of deductive inferences are taken from logic and mathematics. Non-deductive inferences need not preserve truth, that is, 'thought may pass' from true premises to false conclusions. Such inferences can be expansive, or, ampliative in the sense that the performances of such inferences actually increases our putative knowledge. Standard non-deductive inferences do not really exist, but one may think of elementary inductive inferences in which conclusions regarding the future are drawn from knowledge of the past. Since the body of scientific knowledge is increasing, it is obvious that the method of science must allow non-deductive as well as deductive inferences. Indeed, the explosive growth of science in recent times points to a prominent role for the former. Philosophers of science have long tried to isolate and study the non-deductive inferences in science. The inevitability of such inferences one the one hand, juxtaposed with the poverty of all efforts to identify them, constitutes one of the major cognitive embarrassments of our time.

Title Reasoning for Intelligence Analysts
Author Noel Hendrickson
Publisher Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date 2018-03-29
Category Political Science
Total Pages 320
ISBN 9781442272323
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The goal of Reasoning for Intelligence Analysts is to address the three distinct dimensions of an analyst’s thinking: the person of the analyst (their traits), the processes they use (their techniques), and the problems they face (their targets). Based on a decade of academic research and university teaching in a program for aspiring intelligence analysts, this multidimensional approach will help the reader move beyond the traditional boundaries of accumulating knowledge or critical thinking with techniques to assess the unique targets of reasoning in the information age. This approach is not just a set of techniques, but covers all elements of reasoning by discussing the personal, procedural, and problem-specific aspects. It also addresses key challenges, such as uncertain data, irrelevant or misleading information, indeterminate outcomes, and significance for clients through an extensive examination of hypothesis development, causal analysis, futures exploration, and strategy assessment. Both critical and creative thinking, which are essential to reasoning in intelligence, are integrated throughout. Structured around independently readable chapters, this text offers a systematic approach to reasoning a long with an extensive toolkit that will serve the needs of both students and intelligence professionals.

Title The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods
Author Lisa M. Given
Publisher SAGE Publications
Release Date 2008-08-19
Category Social Science
Total Pages 1072
ISBN 9781452265896
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Qualitative research is designed to explore the human elements of a given topic, while specific qualitative methods examine how individuals see and experience the world. Qualitative approaches are typically used to explore new phenomena and to capture individuals' thoughts, feelings, or interpretations of meaning and process. Such methods are central to research conducted in education, nursing, sociology, anthropology, information studies, and other disciplines in the humanities, social sciences, and health sciences. Qualitative research projects are informed by a wide range of methodologies and theoretical frameworks. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods presents current and complete information as well as ready-to-use techniques, facts, and examples from the field of qualitative research in a very accessible style. In taking an interdisciplinary approach, these two volumes target a broad audience and fill a gap in the existing reference literature for a general guide to the core concepts that inform qualitative research practices. The entries cover every major facet of qualitative methods, including access to research participants, data coding, research ethics, the role of theory in qualitative research, and much more—all without overwhelming the informed reader. Key Features Defines and explains core concepts, describes the techniques involved in the implementation of qualitative methods, and presents an overview of qualitative approaches to research Offers many entries that point to substantive debates among qualitative researchers regarding how concepts are labeled and the implications of such labels for how qualitative research is valued Guides readers through the complex landscape of the language of qualitative inquiry Includes contributors from various countries and disciplines that reflect a diverse spectrum of research approaches from more traditional, positivist approaches, through postmodern, constructionist ones Presents some entries written in first-person voice and others in third-person voice to reflect the diversity of approaches that define qualitative work Key Themes Approaches and Methodologies Arts-Based Research, Ties to Computer Software Data Analysis Data Collection Data Types and Characteristics Dissemination History of Qualitative Research Participants Quantitative Research, Ties to Research Ethics Rigor Textual Analysis, Ties to Theoretical and Philosophical Frameworks The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods is designed to appeal to undergraduate and graduate students, practitioners, researchers, consultants, and consumers of information across the social sciences, humanities, and health sciences, making it a welcome addition to any academic or public library.

Informal Logic by Wayne Grennan

Title Informal Logic
Author Wayne Grennan
Publisher McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
Release Date 1997
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 309
ISBN 0773515429
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Grennan bases his evaluation of arguments on two criteria: logical adequacy and pragmatic adequacy. He asserts that the common formal logic systems, while logically sound, are not very useful for evaluating everyday inferences, which are almost all deductively invalid as stated. Turning to informal logic, he points out that while more recent informal logic and critical thinking texts are superior in that their authors recognize the need to evaluate everyday arguments inductively, they typically cover only inductive fallacies, ignoring the inductively sound patterns frequently used in successful persuasion. To redress these problems, Grennan introduces a variety of additional inductive patterns. Concluding that informal logic texts do not encourage precision in evaluating arguments, Grennan proposes a new argument evaluation procedure that expresses judgments of inferential strength in terms of probabilities. Based on theories of Stephen Toulmin, Roderick Chisholm, and John Pollock, his proposed system allows for a more precise judgment of the persuasive force of arguments.