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Title Strategic Adjustment and the Rise of China
Author Robert S. Ross
Publisher Cornell University Press
Release Date 2017-06-20
Category Political Science
Total Pages 316
ISBN 9781501712760
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Strategic Adjustment and the Rise of China demonstrates how structural and domestic variables influence how East Asian states adjust their strategy in light of the rise of China, including how China manages its own emerging role as a regional great power. The contributors note that the shifting regional balance of power has fueled escalating tensions in East Asia and suggest that adjustment challenges are exacerbated by the politics of policymaking. International and domestic pressures on policymaking are reflected in maritime territorial disputes and in the broader range of regional security issues created by the rise of China.Adjusting to power shifts and managing a new regional order in the face of inevitable domestic pressure, including nationalism, is a challenging process. Both the United States and China have had to adjust to China's expanded capabilities. China has sought an expanded influence in maritime East Asia; the United States has responded by consolidating its alliances and expanding its naval presence in East Asia. The region's smaller countries have also adjusted to the rise of China. They have sought greater cooperation with China, even as they try to sustain cooperation with the United States. As China continues to rise and challenge the regional security order, the contributors consider whether the region is destined to experience increased conflict and confrontation.ContributorsIan Bowers, Norwegian Defence University College and Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies Daniel W. Drezner, Tufts University, Brookings Institution, and Washington Post Taylor M. Fravel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bjørn Elias Mikalsen Grønning, Norwegian Defence University College and Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies Chung-in Moon, Yonsei University and Chairman, Presidential Committee on Northeast Asia Cooperation Initiative, Republic of Korea James Reilly, University of Sydney Robert S. Ross, Boston College and Harvard University Randall L. Schweller, The Ohio State University ystein Tunsjø, Norwegian Defence University College and the Norwegian Institute for Defence Studies Wang Dong, Peking University

Title Singapore s Reaction to Rising China
Author Evelyn Goh
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2004
Category China
Total Pages 24
ISBN OCLC:55638119
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This paper examines how Singapore has reacted to the rise of China in the last fifteen years. Arguing that Singapore's perspective on strategic security in the Asia-Pacific is shaped by its economic imperative, its search for strategic relevance and a preference for American preponderance, it identifies two prongs in Singapore's approach in dealing with China. Most obviously, the island state has unhesitatingly - and successfully - sought the "deep engagement" of China through bilateral diplomacy, exchanges, economic cooperation, as well as multilateral regional institutions. More quietly, Singapore has increased its military capabilites by means of force modernization and through systematically strengthening its security relationship with the United States. The paper suggests that in the post-September 11 structural context, structural adjustment for Singapore necessitates the continuation of deep engagement with China, but also deeper engagement with the US, in the strategic as well as diplomatic and political-economic realms.- p.ii.

Title The Return of Bipolarity in World Politics
Author Øystein Tunsjø
Publisher Columbia University Press
Release Date 2018-02-27
Category Political Science
Total Pages 86
ISBN 9780231546904
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the international system has been unipolar, centered on the United States. But the rise of China foreshadows a change in the distribution of power. Øystein Tunsjø shows that the international system is moving toward a U.S.-China standoff, bringing us back to bipolarity—a system in which no third power can challenge the top two. The Return of Bipolarity in World Politics surveys the new era of superpowers to argue that the combined effects of the narrowing power gap between China and the United States and the widening power gap between China and any third-ranking power portend a new bipolar system that will differ in crucial ways from that of the last century. Tunsjø expands Kenneth N. Waltz’s structural-realist theory to examine the new bipolarity within the context of geopolitics, which he calls “geostructural realism.” He considers how a new bipolar system will affect balancing and stability in U.S.-China relations, predicting that the new bipolarity will not be as prone to arms races as the previous era’s; that the risk of limited war between the two superpowers is likely to be higher in the coming bipolarity, especially since the two powers are primarily rivals at sea rather than on land; and that the superpowers are likely to be preoccupied with rivalry and conflict in East Asia instead of globally. Tunsjø presents a major challenge to how international relations understands superpowers in the twenty-first century.

Power Shift by David Shambaugh

Title Power Shift
Author David Shambaugh
Publisher Univ of California Press
Release Date 2005
Category History
Total Pages 383
ISBN 0520245709
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Proceedings from the conference "China and Asia: Towards a New Regional Order," convened in December 2003 at The George Washington University"--Acknowledgments.

Title Revising U S Grand Strategy Toward China
Author Robert D. Blackwill
Publisher Council on Foreign Relations
Release Date 2015-04-01
Category Political Science
Total Pages 54
ISBN 9780876096468
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Robert D. Blackwill and Ashley J. Tellis argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power. This Council Special Report recommends placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.

China 2049 by David Dollar

Title China 2049
Author David Dollar
Publisher Brookings Institution Press
Release Date 2020-06-09
Category Political Science
Total Pages 420
ISBN 9780815738060
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

How will China reform its economy as it aspires to become the next economic superpower? It’s clear that China is the world’s next economic superpower. But what isn’t so clear is how China will get there by the middle of this century. It now faces tremendous challenges such as fostering innovation, dealing with ageing problem and coping with a less accommodative global environment. In this book, economists from China’s leading university and America’s best-known think tank offer in depth analyses of these challenges. Does China have enough talent and right policy and institutional mix to transit from input-driven to innovation-driven economy? What does ageing mean, in terms of labor supply, consumption demand and social welfare expenditure? Can China contain the environmental and climate change risks? How should the financial system be transformed in order to continuously support economic growth and keep financial risks under control? What fiscal reforms are required in order to balance between economic efficiency and social harmony? What roles should the state-owned enterprises play in the future Chinese economy? In addition, how will technological competition between the United States and China affect each country’s development? Will the Chinese yuan emerge as a major reserve currency, and would this destabilize the international financial system? What will be China’s role in the international economic institutions? And will the United States and other established powers accept a growing role for China and the rest of the developing world in the governance of global institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund, or will the world devolve into competing blocs? This book provides unique insights into independent analyses and policy recommendations by a group of top Chinese and American scholars. Whether China succeeds or fails in economic reform will have a large impact, not just on China’s development, but also on stability and prosperity for the whole world.

Rising To The Challenge by Avery Goldstein

Title Rising to the Challenge
Author Avery Goldstein
Publisher Stanford University Press
Release Date 2005
Category Political Science
Total Pages 274
ISBN 0804752184
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book describes and explains the grand strategy China's leaders have adopted to pursue their country's interests in the international system of the 21st century

Title China s 40 Years of Reform and Development 1978 2018
Author Ross Garnaut
Publisher ANU Press
Release Date 2018-07-19
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 679
ISBN 9781760462253
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The year 2018 marks 40 years of reform and development in China (1978–2018). This commemorative book assembles some of the world’s most prominent scholars on the Chinese economy to reflect on what has been achieved as a result of the economic reform programs, and to draw out the key lessons that have been learned by the model of growth and development in China over the preceding four decades. This book explores what has happened in the transformation of the Chinese economy in the past 40 years for China itself, as well as for the rest of the world, and discusses the implications of what will happen next in the context of China’s new reform agenda. Focusing on the long-term development strategy amid various old and new challenges that face the economy, this book sets the scene for what the world can expect in China’s fifth decade of reform and development. A key feature of this book is its comprehensive coverage of the key issues involved in China’s economic reform and development. Included are discussions of China’s 40 years of reform and development in a global perspective; the political economy of economic transformation; the progress of marketisation and changes in market-compatible institutions; the reform program for state-owned enterprises; the financial sector and fiscal system reform, and its foreign exchange system reform; the progress and challenges in economic rebalancing; and the continuing process of China’s global integration. This book further documents and analyses the development experiences including China’s large scale of migration and urbanisation, the demographic structural changes, the private sector development, income distribution, land reform and regional development, agricultural development, and energy and climate change policies.

Title Cracking the China Conundrum
Author Yukon Huang
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2017-06-22
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 256
ISBN 9780190630041
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

China's rise is altering global power relations, reshaping economic debates, and commanding tremendous public attention. Despite extensive media and academic scrutiny, the conventional wisdom about China's economy is often wrong. Cracking the China Conundrum provides a holistic and contrarian view of China's major economic, political, and foreign policy issues. Yukon Huang trenchantly addresses widely accepted yet misguided views in the analysis of China's economy. He examines arguments about the causes and effects of China's possible debt and property market bubbles, trade and investment relations with the Western world, the links between corruption and political liberalization in a growing economy and Beijing's more assertive foreign policies. Huang explains that such misconceptions arise in part because China's economic system is unprecedented in many ways-namely because it's driven by both the market and state- which complicates the task of designing accurate and adaptable analysis and research. Further, China's size, regional diversity, and uniquely decentralized administrative system poses difficulties for making generalizations and comparisons from micro to macro levels when trying to interpret China's economic state accurately. This book not only interprets the ideologies that experts continue building misguided theories upon, but also examines the contributing factors to this puzzle. Cracking the China Conundrum provides an enlightening and corrective viewpoint on several major economic and political foreign policy concerns currently shaping China's economic environment.

China S Economic Rise by Congressional Research Service

Title China s Economic Rise
Author Congressional Research Service
Publisher Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release Date 2017-09-17
Category
Total Pages 52
ISBN 1976466954
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Prior to the initiation of economic reforms and trade liberalization 36 years ago, China maintained policies that kept the economy very poor, stagnant, centrally-controlled, vastly inefficient, and relatively isolated from the global economy. Since opening up to foreign trade and investment and implementing free market reforms in 1979, China has been among the world's fastest-growing economies, with real annual gross domestic product (GDP) growth averaging nearly 10% through 2016. In recent years, China has emerged as a major global economic power. It is now the world's largest economy (on a purchasing power parity basis), manufacturer, merchandise trader, and holder of foreign exchange reserves.The global economic crisis that began in 2008 greatly affected China's economy. China's exports, imports, and foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows declined, GDP growth slowed, and millions of Chinese workers reportedly lost their jobs. The Chinese government responded by implementing a $586 billion economic stimulus package and loosening monetary policies to increase bank lending. Such policies enabled China to effectively weather the effects of the sharp global fall in demand for Chinese products, but may have contributed to overcapacity in several industries and increased debt by Chinese firms and local government. China's economy has slowed in recent years. Real GDP growth has slowed in each of the past six years, dropping from 10.6% in 2010 to 6.7% in 2016, and is projected to slow to 5.7% by 2022.The Chinese government has attempted to steer the economy to a "new normal" of slower, but more stable and sustainable, economic growth. Yet, concerns have deepened in recent years over the health of the Chinese economy. On August 11, 2015, the Chinese government announced that the daily reference rate of the renminbi (RMB) would become more "market-oriented." Over the next three days, the RMB depreciated against the dollar and led to charges that China's goal was to boost exports to help stimulate the economy (which some suspect is in worse shape than indicated by official Chinese economic statistics). Concerns over the state of the Chinese economy appear to have often contributed to volatility in global stock indexes in recent years.The ability of China to maintain a rapidly growing economy in the long run will likely depend largely on the ability of the Chinese government to implement comprehensive economic reforms that more quickly hasten China's transition to a free market economy; rebalance the Chinese economy by making consumer demand, rather than exporting and fixed investment, the main engine of economic growth; boost productivity and innovation; address growing income disparities; and enhance environmental protection. The Chinese government has acknowledged that its current economic growth model needs to be altered and has announced several initiatives to address various economic challenges. In November 2013, the Communist Party of China held the Third Plenum of its 18th Party Congress, which outlined a number of broad policy reforms to boost competition and economic efficiency. For example, the communique stated that the market would now play a "decisive" role in allocating resources in the economy. At the same time, however, the communique emphasized the continued important role of the state sector in China's economy. In addition, many foreign firms have complained that the business climate in China has worsened in recent years. Thus, it remains unclear how committed the Chinese government is to implementing new comprehensive economic reforms.China's economic rise has significant implications for the United States and hence is of major interest to Congress. This report provides background on China's economic rise; describes its current economic structure; identifies the challenges China faces to maintain economic growth; and discusses the challenges, opportunities, and implications of China's economic rise.

Title Military Strategy of Great Powers
Author Håkan Edström
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2021-09-21
Category History
Total Pages 304
ISBN 9781000438574
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book explores the military strategies of the five system-determining great powers during the twenty-first century. The book’s point of departure is that analyses of countries’ defence strategies should acknowledge that states come in various shapes and sizes and that their strategic choices are affected by their perceptions of their position in the international system and by power asymmetries between more and less resourceful states. This creates a diversity in strategies that is often overlooked in theoretically oriented analyses. The book examines how five major powers – the United States, China, the United Kingdom, France and Russia – have adjusted their strategies to improve or maintain their relative position and to manage power asymmetries during the twenty-first century. It also develops and applies an analytical framework for exploring and categorising the strategies pursued by the five major powers which combines elements of structural realism with research on power transition theory and status competition. The concluding chapter addresses questions related to stability and change in the present international system. This book will be of interest to students of strategic studies, foreign policy, and International Relations.

Chinese Foreign Policy by Marc Lanteigne

Title Chinese Foreign Policy
Author Marc Lanteigne
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2019-07-31
Category Political Science
Total Pages 272
ISBN 9780429795435
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This updated and expanded fourth edition of Chinese Foreign Policy seeks to examine the decision-makers, processes and rationales behind China’s expanding international relations as well as offering an in-depth look at China’s modern global relations. Among the key issues explored in this edition are: The further expansion of Chinese foreign policy from regional (Asia-Pacific) to international interests; How the government of Xi Jinping has pursued a more confident great power foreign policy agenda; China’s growing economic power in an era of global financial uncertainty and the return of protectionism; Modern security challenges, including counter-terrorism, cyber-security, maritime power, military reform and modernisation, and the protection of overseas economic interests; China’s shifting power relationship with the United States under President Donald Trump; The deeper engagement of Beijing with a growing number of international and regional institutions and legal affairs; Cross-regional diplomacy, including updated sections on Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and Russia/Eurasia, as well as Oceania and the Polar regions; The development of the Belt and Road Initiative as a centrepiece of China’s foreign policy. This book will be essential reading for students of Chinese Foreign Policy and Asian International Relations, and highly recommended for students of diplomacy, international security and IR in general.

Title ASEAN and the Rise of China
Author Ian Storey
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2013-08-21
Category History
Total Pages 384
ISBN 9781136722974
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Since the early 1990s and the end of the Cold War, the implications of China's rising power have come to dominate the security agenda of the Asia-Pacific region. This book is the first to comprehensively chart the development of Southeast Asia’s relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) from 1949 to 2010, detailing each of the eleven countries’ ties to the PRC and showing how strategic concerns associated with China's regional posture have been a significant factor in shaping their foreign and defence policies. In addition to assessing bilateral ties, the book also examines the institutionalization of relations between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China. The first part of the book covers the period 1949-2010: it examines Southeast Asian responses to the PRC in the context of the ideological and geopolitical rivalry of the Cold War; Southeast Asian countries’ policies towards the PRC in first decade of the post-Cold War era; and deepening ties between the ASEAN states and the PRC in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Part Two analyses the evolving relationships between the countries of mainland Southeast Asia - Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia - and China. Part Three reviews ties between the states of maritime Southeast Asia - Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Brunei and East Timor - and the PRC. Whilst the primary focus of the book is the security dimension of Southeast Asia-China relations, it also takes full account of political relations and the burgeoning economic ties between the two sides. This book is a timely contribution to the literature on the fast changing geopolitics of the Asia-Pacific region.

How China Loses by Luke Patey

Title How China Loses
Author Luke Patey
Publisher Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date 2021
Category Political Science
Total Pages 400
ISBN 9780190061081
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

China's rapid economic growth over the past three decades has endowed it with enormous power. Chinese leaders now want to harness this power to become the world's dominant country, replacing the US as the global superpower. In How China Loses, Luke Patey argues that despite all its strengths, China cannot simply get what it wants. The ambitiousness of China's global economic agenda and pursuit of military expansion are undermining its ability to realize itsgeopolitical plans; other countries are beginning to resist. Weaving together on-the-ground reportage and analysis from Africa to Latin America, East Asia to Europe, Patey explores how the world is responding to China's rise and what this means for everyone.

Title Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers
Author Yan Xuetong
Publisher Princeton University Press
Release Date 2019-04-09
Category Political Science
Total Pages 280
ISBN 9780691190082
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A leading foreign policy thinker uses Chinese political theory to explain why some powers rise as others decline and what this means for the international order While work in international relations has closely examined the decline of great powers, not much attention has been paid to the question of their rise. The upward trajectory of China is a particularly puzzling case. How has it grown increasingly important in the world arena while lagging behind the United States and its allies across certain sectors? Borrowing ideas of political determinism from ancient Chinese philosophers, Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers explains China’s expanding influence by presenting a moral-realist theory that attributes the rise and fall of nations to political leadership. Yan Xuetong shows that the stronger a rising state’s political leadership, the more likely it is to displace a prevailing state in the international system. Yan defines political leadership through the lens of morality, specifically the ability of a government to fulfill its domestic responsibility and maintain international strategic credibility. Examining leadership at the personal, national, and international levels, Yan shows how rising states like China transform the international order by reshaping power distribution and norms. Yan also considers the reasons for America’s diminishing international stature even as its economy, education system, military, political institutions, and technology hold steady. The polarization of China and the United States will not result in another Cold War scenario, but their mutual distrust will ultimately drive the world center from Europe to East Asia. Using the lens of classical Chinese political theory, Leadership and the Rise of Great Powers offers a provocative, alternative perspective on the changing dominance of nations on the global stage.

Age Of Iron by Colin Dueck

Title Age of Iron
Author Colin Dueck
Publisher Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date 2019-09-24
Category Political Science
Total Pages 228
ISBN 9780190079369
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"Age of Iron attempts to describe the past, present, and possible future of conservative nationalism in American foreign policy. It argues that a kind of conservative US nationalism long predates the Trump presidency, and goes back to the American founding. Different aspects of conservative American nationalism have been incorporated into the Republican Party from its creation. Every Republican president since Theodore Roosevelt has tried to balance elements of this tradition with global US foreign policy priorities. Donald Trump was able to win his party's nomination and rise to the presidency, in part, by challenging liberal internationalist assumptions. Yet in practice, he too has combined nationalist assumptions with global US foreign policy priorities. The long-term trend within the Republican party, predating Trump, is toward political populism, cultural conservatism, and white working-class voters -- and this has international implications. Republican foreign policy nationalism is not about to disappear. The book concludes with recommendations for US foreign policy, based upon an understanding that the optimism of the post-Cold War quarter-century is over. Nationalism; conservatism; populism; Trump presidency; American foreign policy; liberal internationalism; US diplomatic history; geopolitics; American party politics; the Republican Party"--

Title New Directions in Japan s Security
Author Paul Midford
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2020-09-07
Category Political Science
Total Pages 266
ISBN 9781000174175
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

While the US-Japan alliance has strengthened since the end of the Cold War, Japan has, almost unnoticed, been building security ties with other partners, in the process reducing the centrality of the US in Japan’s security. This book explains why this is happening. Japan pursued security isolationism during the Cold War, but the US was the exception. Japan hosted US bases and held joint military exercises even while shunning contacts with other militaries. Japan also made an exception to its weapons export ban to allow exports to the US. Yet, since the end of the Cold War, Japan’s security has undergone a quiet transformation, moving away from a singular focus on the US as its sole security partner. Tokyo has begun diversifying its security ties. This book traces and explains this diversification. The country has initiated security dialogues with Asian neighbors, assumed a leadership role in promoting regional multilateral security cooperation, and begun building bilateral security ties with a range of partners, from Australia and India to the European Union. Japan has even lifted its ban on weapons exports and co-development with non-US partners. This edited volume explores this trend of decreasing US centrality alongside the continued, and perhaps even growing, security (inter) dependence with the US. New Directions in Japan’s Security is an essential resource for scholars focused on Japan’s national security. It will also interest on a wider basis those wishing to understand why Japan is developing non-American directions in its security strategy.

China S Grand Strategy by Andrew Scobell

Title China s Grand Strategy
Author Andrew Scobell
Publisher Rand Corporation
Release Date 2020-07-27
Category History
Total Pages 154
ISBN 9781977404206
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

To explore what extended competition between the United States and China might entail out to 2050, the authors of this report identified and characterized China’s grand strategy, analyzed its component national strategies (diplomacy, economics, science and technology, and military affairs), and assessed how successful China might be at implementing these over the next three decades.

Title Indonesia s Foreign Policy and Grand Strategy in the 21st Century
Author Vibhanshu Shekhar
Publisher Routledge
Release Date 2018-03-14
Category History
Total Pages 266
ISBN 9781317199892
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book examines the changes in Indonesian foreign policy during the 21st century as it seeks to position itself as a great power in the Indo-Pacific region. The rise of 21st-century Indonesia is becoming a permanent fixture in both the domestic and global discourses. Though there has been an increasing level of discussion on Indonesia’s emerging power status, there has been little discussion on how the country is debating and signalling its new-found status. This book combines the insights of both neo-classical realism and social identity theory to discuss a reset in an emerging Indonesia’s foreign policy during the 21st century while emphasizing domestic drivers and constraints of its international behaviour. There are three key organizing components of the book – emerging power, status signalling and the Indo-Pacific region. The Indo-Pacific region constitutes a spatial framing of the book; the emerging power provides an analytical category to explain Indonesia’s changing international status; and status signalling explains multiple facets of international behaviour through which the country is projecting its new status. Though leaders are adding different styles and characteristics to the rising Indonesia narrative, there are a few unmistakable overarching trends that highlight an increasing correlation between the country’s rising power and growing ambition in international behaviour. This book is built around four key signalling strategies of Indonesia as an emerging power – expanded regional canvas, power projection, leadership projection, and quest for great power parity. They represent Indonesia’s growing desire for a status-consistent behaviour, its response to the prevailing strategic uncertainty in the Indo-Pacific region and its attempt to advance its strategic interests. This book will be of much interest to students of South-East Asian politics, strategic studies, international diplomacy, security studies and IR in general.