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Title Government Support to Agricultural Insurance
Author Olivier Mahul
Publisher World Bank Publications
Release Date 2010-03-08
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 246
ISBN 0821382195
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Governments in developing countries have been increasingly involved in the support of agricultural (crop and livestock) insurance programs in recent years. In their attempts to design and implement agricultural insurance, they have sought technical and financial assistance from the international community and particularly from the World Bank. One of the recurrent requests from governments regards international experience with agricultural insurance, not only in developed countries, where in some cases agricultural insurance has been offered for more than a century, but also in middleand low-income countries. Governments are particularly interested in the technical, operational, financial, and institutional aspects of public support to agricultural insurance. 'Government Support to Agricultural Insurance' informs public and private decision makers involved in agricultural insurance about recent developments, with a particular focus on middle- and low-income countries. It presents an updated picture of the spectrum of institutional frameworks and experiences with agricultural insurance, ranging from countries in which the public sector provides no support to those in which governments heavily subsidize agricultural insurance. This analysis is based on a survey conducted by the World Bank s agricultural insurance team in 2008 in 65 developed and developing countries. Drawing on the survey results, the book identifies some key roles governments can play to support the development of sustainable, affordable, and cost-effective agricultural insurance programs.

Title The Intended and Unintended Effects of U S Agricultural and Biotechnology Policies
Author Joshua S. Graff Zivin
Publisher University of Chicago Press
Release Date 2012
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 298
ISBN 9780226988030
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Using economic models and empirical analysis, this volume examines a wide range of agricultural and biofuel policy issues and their effects on American agricultural and related agrarian insurance markets. Beginning with a look at the distribution of funds by insurance programs—created to support farmers but often benefiting crop processors instead—the book then examines the demand for biofuel and the effects of biofuel policies on agricultural price uncertainty. Also discussed are genetically engineered crops, which are assuming an increasingly important role in arbitrating tensions between energy production, environmental protection, and the global food supply. Other contributions discuss the major effects of genetic engineering on worldwide food markets. By addressing some of the most challenging topics at the intersection of agriculture and biotechnology, this volume informs crucial debates.

Bangladesh by World Bank Group

Title Bangladesh
Author World Bank Group
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2018
Category
Total Pages 86
ISBN OCLC:1120869136
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Agriculture is key in Bangladesh but highly exposed to risks. The Government provides significant support to agriculture, but currently provides limited support to the development of agriculture insurance. While the Government and external donors spend large amounts of money in the aftermath of disasters - average annual costs of disasters are USD 300 million - the funding gap is still high and can reach more than USD 1.5 billion in bad years. In spite of Government's efforts, credit to agriculture is still constrained and represents 3 percent of total lending. If agriculture insurance programs were to be developed in Bangladesh, the overall legal, regulatory and supervisory insurance environment would require strengthening. Based on this preliminary assessment and discussions with key stakeholders, the WBG will prepare a technical report and policy briefing for Bangladesh Ministry of Finance's Bank and Financial Institutions Division (BFID) on four potential types of agricultural insurance programs which have been identified through this situational analysis as priority solutions for further investigation. The four priority areas identified for further investigation are: (1) Livestock insurance for commercial dairy farmers and poultry farmers; (2) Insurance cover for shrimp producers and artisanal fishermen; (3) Crop insurance linked to credit for small and marginal cereal farmers; and (4) Fully subsidized flood-index insurance for the most vulnerable rural households. The diagnostic reports will also analyze potential institutional frameworks that could be considered for agricultural insurance in Bangladesh, paying specific attention to the potential roles for the Government and insurers.

Title Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries
Author J. David Cummins
Publisher World Bank Publications
Release Date 2009
Category Political Science
Total Pages 268
ISBN 9780821377369
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

'Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries' provides a detailed analysis of the imperfections and inefficiencies that impede the emergence of competitive catastrophe risk markets in developing countries. The book demonstrates how donors and international financial institutions can assist governments in middle- and low-income countries in promoting effective and affordable catastrophe risk financing solutions. The authors present guiding principles on how and when governments, with assistance from donors and international financial institutions, should intervene in catastrophe insurance markets. They also identify key activities to be undertaken by donors and institutions that would allow middle- and low-income countries to develop competitive and cost-effective catastrophe risk financing strategies at both the macro (government) and micro (household) levels. These principles and activities are expected to inform good practices and ensure desirable results in catastrophe insurance projects. 'Catastrophe Risk Financing in Developing Countries' offers valuable advice and guidelines to policy makers and insurance practitioners involved in the development of catastrophe insurance programs in developing countries.

Title Insurance of Crops in Developing Countries
Author Richard A. J. Roberts
Publisher Food & Agriculture Org.
Release Date 2005
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 78
ISBN 9251052999
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"This publication is primarily concerned with risks to arable and horticultural crops, and the applicability of insurance to managing these risks. Its purpose is to provide an introductory overview of crop and forestry insurance. It begins by defining the boundaries for these types of insurance products in order to assist those interested in exploring and exploiting this financial mechanism. It then outlines how to proceed with planning for crop insurance within the established boundaries. While recognizing that classic, damage-based and yield-based insurance products account for the bulk of all crop insurance written globally, the booklet also points out the dynamism of research and development into new insurance mechanisms. It presents two fairly new insurance products: the first based on insuring a level of crop revenue, and the second where insurable damage is determined on the basis of an index derived from data external to the insured farm. While some of the example material is taken from agriculture and forestry in developed countries, the basic target group of readers is expected to be those concerned with crop and forest risk management in developing parts of the world. This publication will be of interest to farmer unions, producer/commodity groups, processors, marketing firms and others contracting with farmer producers, officials of Ministries of Agriculture, Planning and Commerce, and bankers and insurers with farming and forestry clients."

Bangladesh by World Bank Group

Title Bangladesh
Author World Bank Group
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2018
Category
Total Pages 86
ISBN OCLC:1120876799
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Agriculture is a key sector in Bangladesh, but it is highly exposed to risks. While agriculture is a source of employment and livelihood for nearly one in two adults in Bangladesh and contributes about 16 percent to GDP, it is highly exposed to natural hazards. Indeed, Bangladesh is commonly ranked as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to natural disasters with agriculture heavily exposed to floods, cyclones, and drought. In 2007, for instance, Cyclone Sidr destroyed 0.69 million hectares of cultivated crop lands and killed over 460,000 head of livestock and poultry. In the past, the government of Bangladesh and development partners have provided substantial support to farmers in the aftermath of large disasters, but this approach has disadvantages in that support is not guaranteed to farmers and may be slow. In the aftermath of Cyclone Sidr, recovery and reconstruction needs were estimated at USD 1.3 billion, or 28 percent of government expenditures. In spite of efforts by the government of Bangladesh, the gap between available funding and needs is often large and can reach more than USD 1.5 billion in bad years (Air Worldwide and ADPC 2014). Bangladesh often relies on international assistance, as over the past ten years, only 33 percent of disaster-related expenses has been met by domestic resources. In addition, disaster relief transfers often take substantial time to reach beneficiaries and require to divert resources away from long term development projects. If the Government of Bangladesh decided to go ahead with support for agriculture insurance, high-level buy-in from a broad range of stakeholders will be necessary, as will partnerships with the private sector. Government may consider: strengthening the overall legal, regulatory, and supervisory insurance environment; developing a centralized database of data for agricultural insurance purposes; provision of financial support to the program, particularly in the early stages of the program; and establishing a dedicated technical team within government with responsibility for implementation and for providing input to policy. One option for consideration would be for some or all of these activities to be carried out through a project with technical support and/or financial assistance of a development partner with adequate expertise in this field, such as the World Bank Group.

Crop Insurance For Agricultural Development by Institut international de recherche sur les politiques alimentaires

Title Crop Insurance for Agricultural Development
Author Institut international de recherche sur les politiques alimentaires
Publisher IICA Biblioteca Venezuela
Release Date 1986
Category Political Science
Total Pages 322
ISBN 080182673X
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Agricultural Insurance Legislation by Beatriz Benilde Galán

Title Agricultural Insurance Legislation
Author Beatriz Benilde Galán
Publisher Food & Agriculture Org.
Release Date 1981
Category Law
Total Pages 149
ISBN 9251010358
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Title Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2019
Author OECD
Publisher OECD Publishing
Release Date 2019-07-01
Category
Total Pages 190
ISBN 9789264834972
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This annual report monitors and evaluates agricultural policies spanning all 6 continents, including the 36 OECD countries, the 6 non-OECD EU Member States, and 12 emerging economies. It is a unique source of up-to date estimates of support to agriculture using a comprehensive system of measuring and classifying support to agriculture – the Producer and Consumer Support Estimates (PSEs and CSEs), the General Services Support Estimate (GSSE) and related indicators – which provide insight into the increasingly complex nature of agricultural policy and serve as a basis for OECD’s agricultural policy monitoring and evaluation.

Title Supporting Indian Farms the Smart Way
Author Ashok Gulati
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2018
Category Agricultural subsidies
Total Pages 456
ISBN 9332704724
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Title Insurance Against Covariate Shocks
Author Harold Alderman
Publisher World Bank Publications
Release Date 2007
Category Social Science
Total Pages 34
ISBN 9780821370377
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Uninsured risk had far-reaching consequences for rural growth as well as poverty reduction. A range of informal mechanisms to insure rural households against the impact of shocks, but they are a modest component of a risk layering strategy for well-off households and even less protective for low-income households. Formal insurance mechanisms have inherent market imperfections. State interventions to address these limitations have proven costly and generally are targeted poorly. Recent developments in microfinance as well as in insurance marketing have opened new possibilities for household risk reduction. Index insurance, such as weather indexing, addresses other inherent problems in insurance by using an indicator that is not affected by individual behaviour and may address monitoring costs and moral hazard. A number of innovations using index insurance are being tried currently in diverse settings ranging from India to Mongolia to Malawi. Marketing costs may limit the provision of such insurance to small farmers, but even in such cases microfinance institutes may serve as market intermediaries. Moreover, state and submational governments can use insurance to achieve countercyclical funding programs. In this vein, municipal governments in Mexico have used insurance to finance disaster contingency while the World Food Program has insured a portion of its emergency assistance to Ethiopia. Humanitarian organizations and NGOs may also seek insurance in this manner.

Bangladesh by World Bank Group

Title Bangladesh
Author World Bank Group
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2018
Category
Total Pages 86
ISBN OCLC:1120920259
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Agriculture is a key sector in Bangladesh, but it is highly exposed to risks. While agriculture is a source of employment and livelihood for nearly one in two adults in Bangladesh and contributes about 16 percent to gross domestic product (GDP), it is highly exposed to natural hazards. In the past, the government of Bangladesh and development partners have provided substantial support to farmers in the aftermath of large disasters, but this approach has disadvantages in that support is not guaranteed to farmers and may be slow. Agricultural insurance offers the government a planned, fast, ex ante alternative to ad hoc disaster response, one that: (1) reduces the ex post fiscal burden on the government, (2) improves farmers' resilience to shocks, and (3) supports the expansion of agricultural credit. International experience shows that government can play a variety of roles to support the responsible scale-up of agriculture insurance. The ministry of livestock and fisheries, and other key public and private sector stakeholders, the World Bank Group team has identified four potential types of agricultural insurance to offer in Bangladesh, all of which will require implementation through a partnership between the public and private sectors. The four types are dairy cattle insurance, aquaculture insurance, crop insurance, and fully subsidized agricultural insurance for the most vulnerable.

Title Rent Dispersion in the US Agricultural Insurance Industry
Author Smith, Vincent H.
Publisher Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release Date 2016-05-20
Category Political Science
Total Pages 40
ISBN 9203456XXXX
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A central, but inadequately explored issue with respect to subsidized crop insurance programs concerns the costs of delivering insurance coverage to farmers. This study examines that issue in the context of the heavily subsidized US crop insurance program which has often been put forward as a model for agricultural insurance programs in other countries. US Government programs often rely on private firms to deliver income transfers or services, which then establish their own rent-seeking lobbies, which are shared with input suppliers. This rent dispersion process is examined in the context of the U.S. agricultural insurance industry, which receives as much as one third of the annual subsidies that support the federal crop insurance program. We find that as total payments to insurance companies increased between 2001 and 2009, an increasingly large share of the agricultural insurance industry’s rents accrued to insurance agents, although in markets where insurance companies possessed some oligopsony power, agent payments are smaller. The findings also suggest that the insurance industry (companies and independent agents) would almost surely provide the same service for substantially less than the gross revenues from the subsidies and underwriting gains they received.

Title Belt and Road Economics
Author World Bank
Publisher World Bank Publications
Release Date 2019-08-16
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 156
ISBN 9781464814655
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

China proposed the Belt and Road Initiative in 2013 to improve connectivity and cooperation on a transcontinental scale. This study, by a team of World Bank Group economists led by Michele Ruta, analyzes the economics of the initiative. It assesses the connectivity gaps between economies along the initiative’s corridors, examines the costs and economic effects of the infrastructure improvements proposed under the initiative, and identifies complementary policy reforms and institutions that will support welfare maximization and mitigation of risks for participating economies.

Climate Smart Agriculture by Leslie Lipper

Title Climate Smart Agriculture
Author Leslie Lipper
Publisher Springer
Release Date 2017-10-20
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 630
ISBN 9783319611945
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book is open access under a CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO license. The book uses an economic lens to identify the main features of climate-smart agriculture (CSA), its likely impact, and the challenges associated with its implementation. Drawing upon theory and concepts from agricultural development, institutional, and resource economics, this book expands and formalizes the conceptual foundations of CSA. Focusing on the adaptation/resilience dimension of CSA, the text embraces a mixture of conceptual analyses, including theory, empirical and policy analysis, and case studies, to look at adaptation and resilience through three possible avenues: ex-ante reduction of vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity, and ex-post risk coping. The book is divided into three sections. The first section provides conceptual framing, giving an overview of the CSA concept and grounding it in core economic principles. The second section is devoted to a set of case studies illustrating the economic basis of CSA in terms of reducing vulnerability, increasing adaptive capacity and ex-post risk coping. The final section addresses policy issues related to climate change. Providing information on this new and important field in an approachable way, this book helps make sense of CSA and fills intellectual and policy gaps by defining the concept and placing it within an economic decision-making framework. This book will be of interest to agricultural, environmental, and natural resource economists, development economists, and scholars of development studies, climate change, and agriculture. It will also appeal to policy-makers, development practitioners, and members of governmental and non-governmental organizations interested in agriculture, food security and climate change.

Title Agricultural Policy in Disarray
Author Vincent H. Smith
Publisher Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date 2018-12-13
Category Political Science
Total Pages 348
ISBN 9780844750217
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Agricultural Policy in Disarray provides fascinating, detailed, and contemporary evidence of how rent-seeking by small, well-organized interest groups results in government policies that do little good and much harm.

Title Agricultural Research for Sustainable Food Systems in Sri Lanka
Author Buddhi Marambe
Publisher Springer Nature
Release Date 2020-03-30
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 394
ISBN 9789811521522
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A food system comprises the entire range of actors and interlinked activities related to food production, processing, distribution, marketing and trade, preparation, consumption, and disposal. When a food system operates without compromising the needs of future generations, it is considered to be a “Sustainable Food System.” The present-day food systems in Sri Lanka are diverse, and the natural and physical environment, infrastructure, institutions, society and culture, and policies and regulations within which the food systems operate, as well as the technologies employed, have shaped their outcomes. Agricultural research is a key factor in terms of innovation and technological advances. Innovation has been the main driver of food systems’ transformation over the past few decades and will be critical to addressing the needs of a rapidly growing population in a context of climate change and scarcity of natural resources. In addition, agricultural research must help meet the rising demand for food at affordable prices. Comprising 17 chapters written by specialist(s) in their respective subject-areas, this Contributed Volume on “Agricultural Research for Sustainable Food Systems in Sri Lanka: A Historical Perspective” shares the scientific knowledge accumulated by the National Agricultural Research System of Sri Lanka, including universities, and offers recommendations on how to make food systems more sustainable in order to address the current needs of Sri Lankan society. It presents perspectives on four key thematic areas, namely: (i) Crop and animal production, management, and improvement, (ii) Agro-product processing technologies, (iii) Natural resource management, and (iv) Socio-economic development and agri-business management.

Title Agricultural Productivity and Producer Behavior
Author Wolfram Schlenker
Publisher University of Chicago Press
Release Date 2019-11-13
Category Business & Economics
Total Pages 432
ISBN 9780226619941
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Agricultural yields have increased steadily in the last half century, particularly since the Green Revolution. At the same time, inflation-adjusted agricultural commodity prices have been trending downward as increases in supply outpace the growth of demand. Recent severe weather events, biofuel mandates, and a switch toward a more meat-heavy diet in emerging economies have nevertheless boosted commodity prices. Whether this is a temporary jump or the beginning of a longer-term trend is an open question. Agricultural Productivity and Producer Behavior examines the factors contributing to the remarkably steady increase in global yields and assesses whether yield growth can continue. This research also considers whether such growth will impose significant environmental externalities. Among the topics studied are genetically modified crops; changing climatic factors; farm production responses to government regulations including crop insurance, transport subsidies, and electricity subsidies for groundwater extraction; and the role of specific farm practices such as crop diversification, disease management, and water-saving methods. This research provides new evidence that technological as well as policy choices influence agricultural productivity.

Crop Insurance by Alexa B. Verderosa

Title Crop Insurance
Author Alexa B. Verderosa
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2019-04-21
Category Crop insurance
Total Pages 263
ISBN 1536152749
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Since its inception in 1938, the program has evolved from an ancillary program with low participation to a central pillar of federal support for agriculture. As the program has grownin types of insurance policies, breadth of crops covered, and millions of acres enrolledso has the cost of the program to the federal government. The first two chapters provide an overview of the federal crop insurance program. Chapter 3 focuses entirely on delivery subsides and explains how delivery subsidies are calculated, the limitations of publicly available data on the actual delivery expenses of Approved Insurance Providers (AIPs), and how AIPs spend delivery subsidies. In 2010, USDA negotiated an agreement with insurance companies to set a national cap on the annual payments it makes to them for expenses and a target rate of return. Chapter 4 examines (1) the changes in expense payments to companies due to the cap, (2) the extent to which the programs target rate of return reflects market conditions, and (3) opportunities for the federal government to reduce its delivery costs for the program. Before the Agricultural Act of 2014 cotton was eligible for most Federal farm programs. The 2014 Farm Act eliminated multiple programs, including the Direct and Countercyclical Program, while introducing several new programs, including the Supplemental Coverage Option (SCO), and Stacked Income Protection Plan (STAX). Chapter 5 focuses on the two new programs for cotton and examines the mechanics of the programs and their revenue impacts. Catastrophic coverage for noninsurable crops, known as the Noninsured Crop Disaster Assistance Program (NAP), has been available since the Federal Crop Insurance Reform Act of 1994. Chapter 6 examines the effects of the 2014 NAP policy change. Crop insurance premium subsidies are an important part of Compliance incentives under the 2014 Act. Farm program benefits under the 2014 Act could be as high or higher than under the 2008 Farm Act; but for individual farms, the shift toward a crop insurance-oriented policy could increase or decrease Compliance incentives as reported in the last chapter.

Title insurance credit and technology adoption field experimental evidence from malawi
Author Dean Yang
Publisher World Bank Publications
Release Date 2007
Category
Total Pages 86
ISBN 9203456XXXX
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The adoption of new agricultural technologies may be discouraged because of their inherent riskiness. This study implemented a randomized field experiment to ask whether the provision of insurance against a major source of production risk induces farmers to take out loans to invest in a new crop variety. The study sample was composed of roughly 800 maize and groundnut farmers in Malawi, where by far the dominant source of production risk is the level of rainfall. We randomly selected half of the farmers to be offered credit to purchase high-yielding hybrid maize and improved groundnut seeds for planting in the November 2006 crop season. The other half of the farmers were offered a similar credit package but were also required to purchase (at actuarially fair rates) a weather insurance policy that partially or fully forgave the loan in the event of poor rainfall. Surprisingly, take up was lower by 13 percentage points among farmers offered insurance with the loan. Take-up was 33.0 percent for farmers who were offered the uninsured loan. There is suggestive evidence that the reduced take-up of the insured loan was due to the high cognitive cost of evaluating the insurance: insured loan take-up was positively correlated with farmer education levels. By contrast, the take-up of the uninsured loan was uncorrelated with farmer education.