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Cognitive Illusions by Rüdiger F Pohl

Title Cognitive Illusions
Author Rüdiger F Pohl
Publisher Psychology Press
Release Date 2012-12-06
Category Psychology
Total Pages 450
ISBN 9781135844950
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Cognitive Illusions investigates a wide range of fascinating psychological effects in the way we think, judge and remember in our everyday lives. At the beginning of each chapter, leading researchers in the field introduce the background to phenomena such as illusions of control, overconfidence and hindsight bias. This is followed by an explanation of the experimental context in which these illusions can be investigated and a theoretical discussion drawing conclusions about the wider implications of these fallacy and bias effects. Written with researchers and instructors in mind, this tightly edited, reader-friendly text provides both an overview of research in the area and many lively pedagogic features such as chapter summaries, further reading lists and suggestions for classroom demonstrations.

Cognitive Illusions by Rdiger F. Pohl

Title Cognitive Illusions
Author Rdiger F. Pohl
Publisher Psychology Press
Release Date 2016-07-28
Category Errors
Total Pages 494
ISBN 1138903426
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Cognitive Illusions explores a wide range of fascinating psychological effects in the way we think, judge and remember in our everyday lives. Featuring contributions from leading researchers, the book defines what cognitive illusions are and discusses their theoretical status: are such illusions proof for a faulty human information-processing system, or do they only represent by-products of otherwise adaptive cognitive mechanisms? Throughout the book, background to phenomena such as illusions of control, overconfidence and hindsight bias are discussed, before considering the respective empirical research, potential explanations of the phenomenon, and relevant applied perspectives. Each chapter also features the detailed description of an experiment that can be used as classroom demonstration. Featuring six new chapters, this edition has been thoroughly updated throughout to reflect recent research and changes of focus within the field. This book will be of interest to students and researchers of cognitive illusions, specifically, those focusing on thinking, reasoning, decision-making and memory.

The Monty Hall Dilemma by Donald Granberg

Title The Monty Hall Dilemma
Author Donald Granberg
Publisher Unknown
Release Date 2014-12-09
Category
Total Pages 218
ISBN 0996100806
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A cognitive illusion occurs when the obvious answer to a thought question turns out to be incorrect. Psychological reality conflicts with objective reality. The Monty Hall Dilemma is a cognitive illusion par excellence originating in the "Let's Make a Deal" television game show in which a contestant selects one of three doors hoping that it hides the grand prize (like a new car!). After an initial guess has been made, host Monty Hall reveals a consolation prize (like a goat!) behind one of the other doors. The contestant's dilemma is whether to stay with the first choice or switch to the remaining unchosen door. Popular PARADE magazine columnist, Marilyn vos Savant, writing about the Monty Hall dilemma, received thousands of letters from readers most of whom contested her surprising solution to this dilemma. Knowing about cognitive illusions in general (several are presented here) and the Monty Hall Dilemma in particular should alert readers to the possibility that ordinary reasoning and common sense don't always apply even though people have a tendency to stick with their initial hunches.

Title Probability and Rationality
Author Ellery Eells
Publisher Rodopi
Release Date 1991
Category Science
Total Pages 345
ISBN 9051833164
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Title Perception Hallucination and Illusion
Author William Fish
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2009-04-07
Category Psychology
Total Pages 208
ISBN 9780199888733
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The idea of a disjunctive theory of visual experiences first found expression in J.M. Hinton's pioneering 1973 book Experiences. In the first monograph in this exciting area since then, William Fish develops a comprehensive disjunctive theory, incorporating detailed accounts of the three core kinds of visual experience--perception, hallucination, and illusion--and an explanation of how perception and hallucination could be indiscriminable from one another without having anything in common. In the veridical case, Fish contends that the perception of a particular state of affairs involves the subject's being acquainted with that state of affairs, and that it is the subject's standing in this acquaintance relation that makes the experience possess a phenomenal character. Fish argues that when we hallucinate, we are having an experience that, while lacking phenomenal character, is mistakenly supposed by the subject to possess it. Fish then shows how this approach to visual experience is compatible with empirical research into the workings of the brain and concludes by extending this treatment to cover the many different types of illusion that we can be subject to.

Adaptive Thinking by Gerd Gigerenzer

Title Adaptive Thinking
Author Gerd Gigerenzer
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2002-03-07
Category Psychology
Total Pages 360
ISBN 0198031173
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Where do new ideas come from? What is social intelligence? Why do social scientists perform mindless statistical rituals? This vital book is about rethinking rationality as adaptive thinking: to understand how minds cope with their environments, both ecological and social. Gerd Gigerenzer proposes and illustrates a bold new research program that investigates the psychology of rationality, introducing the concepts of ecological, bounded, and social rationality. His path-breaking collection takes research on thinking, social intelligence, creativity, and decision-making out of an ethereal world where the laws of logic and probability reign, and places it into our real world of human behavior and interaction. Adaptive Thinking is accessibly written for general readers with an interest in psychology, cognitive science, economics, sociology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, and animal behavior. It also teaches a practical audience, such as physicians, AIDS counselors, and experts in criminal law, how to understand and communicate uncertainties and risks.

Title A Dictionary of Hallucinations
Author Jan Dirk Blom
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date 2009-12-08
Category Medical
Total Pages 553
ISBN 1441912231
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A Dictionary of Hallucinations is designed to serve as a reference manual for neuroscientists, psychiatrists, psychiatric residents, psychologists, neurologists, historians of psychiatry, general practitioners, and academics dealing professionally with concepts of hallucinations and other sensory deceptions.

The Reality Of Illusion by Joseph Anderson

Title The Reality of Illusion
Author Joseph Anderson
Publisher SIU Press
Release Date 1996
Category Performing Arts
Total Pages 200
ISBN 0809321963
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Applying research findings from studies in visual perception, neurophysiology, cognitive psychology, developmental psychology, and anthropology, Joseph D. Anderson defines the complex interaction of motion pictures with the human mind and organizes the relationship between film and cognitive science. Anderson's primary argument is that motion picture viewers mentally process the projected images and sounds of a movie according to the same perceptual rules used in response to visual and aural stimuli in the world outside the theater. To process everyday events in the world, the human mind is equipped with capacities developed through millions of years of evolution. In this context, Anderson builds a metatheory influenced by the writings of J. J. and Eleanor Gibson and employs it to explore motion picture comprehension as a subset of general human comprehension and perception, focusing his ecological approach to film on the analysis of cinema's true substance: illusion. Anderson investigates how viewers, with their mental capacities designed for survival, respond to particular aspects of filmic structure--continuity, diegesis, character development, and narrative--and examines the ways in which rules of visual and aural processing are recognized and exploited by filmmakers. He uses Orson Welles's Citizen Kane to disassemble and redefine the contemporary concept of character identification; he addresses continuity in a shot-by-shot analysis of images from Casablanca; and he uses a wide range of research studies, such as Harry F. Harlow's work with infant rhesus monkeys, to describe how motion pictures become a substitute or surrogate reality for an audience. By examining the human capacity for play and the inherent potential for illusion, Anderson considers the reasons viewers find movies so enthralling, so emotionally powerful, and so remarkably real.

Title Associative Illusions of Memory
Author David Gallo
Publisher Psychology Press
Release Date 2013-05-13
Category Psychology
Total Pages 302
ISBN 9781134606832
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The last decade has seen a flurry of experimental research into the neurocognitive underpinnings of illusory memories. Using simple materials and tests (e.g., recalling words or pictures), methods such as the famed Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task have attracted considerable attention. These tasks elicit false memories of nonstudied events that are vivid, long lasting, and difficult to consciously avoid. Additional research shows that these memory illusions are fundamentally related to more complex memory distortions. As a result, this rapidly expanding literature has generated a great deal of excitement - and even some controversy - in contemporary psychology. Associative Illusions of Memory provides an ambitious overview of this research area. Starting with the historical roots and major theoretical trends, this book exhaustively reviews the most recent studies by cognitive psychologists, neuropsychologists, and cognitive neuroscientists. The strengths and limits of various experimental techniques are outlined, and the large body of existing data is meaningfully distilled into a few core theoretical concepts. This book highlights the malleability of memory, as well as the strategies and situations that can help us avoid false memories. Throughout the review, it is argued that these basic memory illusions contribute to a deeper understanding of how human memory works.

The Illusions Of Time by Valtteri Arstila

Title The Illusions of Time
Author Valtteri Arstila
Publisher Springer Nature
Release Date 2019-09-26
Category Science
Total Pages 374
ISBN 9783030220488
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This edited collection presents the latest cutting-edge research in the philosophy and cognitive science of temporal illusions. Illusion and error have long been important points of entry for both philosophical and psychological approaches to understanding the mind. Temporal illusions, specifically, concern a fundamental feature of lived experience, temporality, and its relation to a fundamental feature of the world, time, thus providing invaluable insight into investigations of the mind and its relationship with the world. The existence of temporal illusions crucially challenges the naïve assumption that we can simply infer the temporal nature of the world from experience. This anthology gathers eighteen original papers from current leading researchers in this subject, covering four broad and interdisciplinary topics: illusions of temporal passage, illusions and duration, illusions of temporal order and simultaneity, and the relationship between temporal illusions and the cognitive representation of time.

Illusions Of Human Thinking by Gabriel Vacariu

Title Illusions of Human Thinking
Author Gabriel Vacariu
Publisher Springer
Release Date 2015-10-19
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 188
ISBN 9783658104443
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The book illustrates that the traditional philosophical concept of the "Universe”, the "World” has led to anomalies and paradoxes in the realm of knowledge. The author replaces this notion by the EDWs perspective, i.e. a new axiomatic hyperontological framework of Epistemologically Different Worlds” (EDWs). Thus it becomes possible to find a more appropriate approach to different branches of science, such as cognitive neuroscience, physics, biology and the philosophy of mind. The consequences are a better understanding of the mind-body problem, quantum physics non-locality or entanglement, the measurement problem, Einstein’s theory of relativity and the binding problem in cognitive neuroscience.

Title Explanations Accounts and Illusions
Author John McClure
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release Date 1991-07-25
Category Psychology
Total Pages 188
ISBN 0521385326
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A survey of the major viewpoints in social psychology concerning peoples's self-awareness, explanations of their actions, cognitive illusions and self-misunderstandings.

Title Rapid Modelling for Increasing Competitiveness
Author Gerald Reiner
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date 2009-06-13
Category Technology & Engineering
Total Pages 310
ISBN 9781848827486
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

A Perspective on Two Decades of Rapid Modeling It is an honor for me to be asked to write a foreword to the Proceedings of the 1st Rapid Modeling Conference. In 1987, when I coined the term “Rapid Modeling” to denote queuing modeling of manufacturing systems, I never imagined that two decades later there would be an international conference devoted to this topic! I am delighted to see that there will be around 40 presentations at the conference by leading researchers from aroundthe world, and about half of these presentationsare represented by written papers published in this book. I congratulate the conference organizers and program committee on the success of their efforts to hold the ?rst ever conference on Rapid Modeling. Attendees at this conferencemight?nd it interesting to learn about the history of the term Rapid Modeling in the context it is used here. During the fall of 1986 I was invited to a meeting at the Headquarters of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) in Dearborn, Michigan. By that time I had successfully demonstrated s- eral industry applications of queuing network models at leading manufacturers in the USA. Although in principle the use of queuing networks to model manufact- ing systems was well known in the OR/MS community and many papers had been published,the actual use of suchmodelsby manufacturingprofessionalswas almost nonexistent.

Title The Neuroscience of Visual Hallucinations
Author Daniel Collerton
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Release Date 2014-12-08
Category Science
Total Pages 368
ISBN 9781118892800
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Each year, some two million people in the United Kingdom experience visual hallucinations. Infrequent, fleeting visual hallucinations, often around sleep, are a usual feature of life. In contrast, consistent, frequent, persistent hallucinations during waking are strongly associated with clinical disorders; in particular delirium, eye disease, psychosis, and dementia. Research interest in these disorders has driven a rapid expansion in investigatory techniques, new evidence, and explanatory models. In parallel, a move to generative models of normal visual function has resolved the theoretical tension between veridical and hallucinatory perceptions. From initial fragmented areas of investigation, the field has become increasingly coherent over the last decade. Controversies and gaps remain, but for the first time the shapes of possible unifying models are becoming clear, along with the techniques for testing these. This book provides a comprehensive survey of the neuroscience of visual hallucinations and the clinical techniques for testing these. It brings together the very latest evidence from cognitive neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neuropathology, and neuropharmacology, placing this within current models of visual perception. Leading researchers from a range of clinical and basic science areas describe visual hallucinations in their historical and scientific context, combining introductory information with up-to-date discoveries. They discuss results from the main investigatory techniques applied in a range of clinical disorders. The final section outlines future research directions investigating the potential for new understandings of veridical and hallucinatory perceptions, and for treatments of problematic hallucinations. Fully comprehensive, this is an essential reference for clinicians in the fields of the psychology and psychiatry of hallucinations, as well as for researchers in departments, research institutes and libraries. It has strong foundations in neuroscience, cognitive science, optometry, psychiatry, psychology, clinical medicine, and philosophy. With its lucid explanation and many illustrations, it is a clear resource for educators and advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

Title The Oxford Compendium of Visual Illusions
Author Arthur G. Shapiro
Publisher Oxford University Press
Release Date 2017-05-24
Category Medical
Total Pages 880
ISBN 9780199794607
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Visual illusions are compelling phenomena that draw attention to the brain's capacity to construct our perceptual world. The Compendium is a collection of over 100 chapters on visual illusions, written by the illusion creators or by vision scientists who have investigated mechanisms underlying the phenomena. --

Title Contemporary Psychological Approaches to Depression
Author Rick E. Ingram
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date 2012-12-06
Category Psychology
Total Pages 208
ISBN 9781461306498
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In 1988, the Deparunent of Psychology at San Diego State University initiated the first in a planned conference series on Contemporary Issues in Clinical Psychology. It was decided that the focus of this first conference would be depression. Consequently, a number of distinguished scholars were invited to San Diego to discuss contemporary theoretical, empirical, and treatment issues in depressive disorders. This volume contains the results of this conference. Each chapter remains true to the original presentation, although each has been extensively reworked by the authors for inclusion in a book format, and in some cases co-authors have aided in revisions for the volume. Given the sheer quantity and impressive quality of contemporary research, it may not be possible to overstate the impact of psychological approaches on our understanding of depressive disorders. Accordingly, the aim of this conference was, within the limited amount of time available for such an endeavor, to chronicle the current status of the psychology of depression. In inviting participants to this forum, no attempt was made to reflect only certain theoretical views. Contemporary psychological theory and research in depression, however, are dominated by cognitive viewpoints, and the influence of cognitive perspectives is thus unmistakable throughout the present volume.

The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman

Title The Knowledge Illusion
Author Steven Sloman
Publisher Penguin
Release Date 2017-03-14
Category Psychology
Total Pages 304
ISBN 9780399184345
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

“The Knowledge Illusion is filled with insights on how we should deal with our individual ignorance and collective wisdom.” —Steven Pinker We all think we know more than we actually do. Humans have built hugely complex societies and technologies, but most of us don’t even know how a pen or a toilet works. How have we achieved so much despite understanding so little? Cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach argue that we survive and thrive despite our mental shortcomings because we live in a rich community of knowledge. The key to our intelligence lies in the people and things around us. We’re constantly drawing on information and expertise stored outside our heads: in our bodies, our environment, our possessions, and the community with which we interact—and usually we don’t even realize we’re doing it. The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic. We have mastered fire, created democratic institutions, stood on the moon, and sequenced our genome. And yet each of us is error prone, sometimes irrational, and often ignorant. The fundamentally communal nature of intelligence and knowledge explains why we often assume we know more than we really do, why political opinions and false beliefs are so hard to change, and why individual-oriented approaches to education and management frequently fail. But our collaborative minds also enable us to do amazing things. The Knowledge Illusion contends that true genius can be found in the ways we create intelligence using the community around us.

Inevitable Illusions by Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini

Title Inevitable Illusions
Author Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini
Publisher Wiley
Release Date 1996-11-18
Category Psychology
Total Pages 256
ISBN 047115962X
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"Fascinating and insightful. . . . I cannot recall a book that has made me think more about the nature of thinking." -- Richard C. Lewontin Harvard University Everyone knows that optical illusions trick us because of the way we see. Now scientists have discovered that cognitive illusions, a set of biases deeply embedded in the human mind, can actually distort the way we think. In Inevitable Illusions, distinguished cognitive researcher Massimo Piattelli-Palmarini takes us on a provocative, challenging, and thoroughly entertaining exploration of the games our minds play. He opens the doors onto the newly charted realm of the cognitive unconscious to reveal the full range of illusions, showing how they inhibit our ability to reason--no matter what our educational background or IQ. Inevitable Illusions is stimulating, eye-opening food for thought.

Title Philosophy Psychology and Psychologism
Author Dale Jacquette
Publisher Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date 2003-05-31
Category Philosophy
Total Pages 342
ISBN 9781402013379
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This book presents a remarkable diversity of contemporary opinions on the prospects of addressing philosophical topics from a psychological perspective. It considers the history and philosophical merits of psychologism, and looks systematically at psychologism in phenomenology, cognitive science, epistemology, logic, philosophy of language, philosophical semantics, and artificial intelligence.