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Caudine Forks 321 Bc by Nic Fields

Title Caudine Forks 321 BC
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2021-03-18
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781472824936
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In its long history, the Roman Republic suffered many defeats, but none as humiliating as the Caudine Forks in the summer of 321 BC. Rome had been at war with the Samnites – one of early Rome's most formidable foes – since 326 BC in what would turn out to be a long and bitter conflict now known as the Second Samnite War. The rising, rival Italic powers vied for supremacy in central and southern Italy, and their leaders were contemplating the conquest of the entire Italian peninsula. Driven by the ambitions of Titus Veturius Calvinus and Spurius Postumius Albinus, Roman forces were determined to inflict a crippling blow on the Samnites, but their combined armies were instead surprised, surrounded, and forced to surrender by the Samnites led by Gavius Pontius. The Roman soldiers, citizens of Rome to a man, were required to quit the field by passing under the yoke of spears in a humiliating ritual worse than death itself. This new study, using specially commissioned artwork and maps, analyses why the Romans were so comprehensively defeated at the Caudine Forks, and explains why the protracted aftermath of their dismal defeat was so humiliating and how it spurred them on to their eventual triumph over the Samnites. With this in mind, this study will widen its focus to take account of other major events in the Second Samnite War.

Caudine Forks 321 Bc by Nic Fields

Title Caudine Forks 321 BC
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2021-03-18
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781472824912
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In its long history, the Roman Republic suffered many defeats, but none as humiliating as the Caudine Forks in the summer of 321 BC. Rome had been at war with the Samnites – one of early Rome's most formidable foes – since 326 BC in what would turn out to be a long and bitter conflict now known as the Second Samnite War. The rising, rival Italic powers vied for supremacy in central and southern Italy, and their leaders were contemplating the conquest of the entire Italian peninsula. Driven by the ambitions of Titus Veturius Calvinus and Spurius Postumius Albinus, Roman forces were determined to inflict a crippling blow on the Samnites, but their combined armies were instead surprised, surrounded, and forced to surrender by the Samnites led by Gavius Pontius. The Roman soldiers, citizens of Rome to a man, were required to quit the field by passing under the yoke of spears in a humiliating ritual worse than death itself. This new study, using specially commissioned artwork and maps, analyses why the Romans were so comprehensively defeated at the Caudine Forks, and explains why the protracted aftermath of their dismal defeat was so humiliating and how it spurred them on to their eventual triumph over the Samnites. With this in mind, this study will widen its focus to take account of other major events in the Second Samnite War.

Samnium And The Samnites by E. T. Salmon

Title Samnium and the Samnites
Author E. T. Salmon
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release Date 1967-09-02
Category History
Total Pages 447
ISBN 9780521061858
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Study of the life and culture of Samnium civilization in Roman Italy till its conquest by Rome.

Title Early Roman Warrior 753 321 BC
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2011-07-20
Category History
Total Pages 64
ISBN 9781849088336
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The prototypical 'Roman Legionnaire' often seen on television and in movies is actually the product of nearly a millennium of military development. Far back in the Bronze Age, before the city of Rome existed, a loose collection of independent hamlets eventually formed into a village. From this base, the earliest Roman warriors launched cattle raids and ambushes against their enemies. At some point during this time, the Romans began a period of expansion, conquering land and absorbing peoples. Soon, they had adopted classical Greek fighting methods with militia forming in phalanxes. This book covers the evolution of the earliest Roman warriors and their development into an army that would eventually conquer the known world.

Imperatores Victi by Nathan S. Rosenstein

Title Imperatores Victi
Author Nathan S. Rosenstein
Publisher Univ of California Press
Release Date 1990-01-01
Category History
Total Pages 224
ISBN 0520069390
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

"A piece of work erudite and inspiring . . . for it abandons the well-trodden path and ventures into the difficult territory of Roman religion and its turbulent intersection with Roman politics. It is astounding that nobody has ever treated this subject systematically and in detail."--Jerzy Linderski, University of North Carolina

Title Athenian Hoplite vs Spartan Hoplite
Author Murray Dahm
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2021-01-21
Category History
Total Pages 80
ISBN 9781472844132
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), waged between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies, involved some of the most important developments in ancient warfare. A life-and-death struggle between the two most powerful Greek city-states in the wake of their combined successes against the Persian invasion of Xerxes in 480–479 BC, the conflict dragged in communities from all over the Greek world on one side or the other. Ranging from the Black Sea to Sicily, the war saw the first recorded widespread use of light-armed troops, reserves, the deep phalanx, and other ideas important for the development of Western warfare into the 4th century BC, such as strategic thinking. It also revealed lessons (some learned and some not) with respect to the strengths and weaknesses of hoplite warfare and the various states in Greece. Featuring full-color artwork and drawing upon an array of sources, this study of three pivotal clashes between Spartan and Athenian hoplite forces during the Peloponnesian War highlights all of these developments and lessons.

Title Rome s Third Samnite War 298 290 BC
Author Mike Roberts
Publisher Pen and Sword Military
Release Date 2020-03-30
Category History
Total Pages 320
ISBN 9781526744111
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Third Samnite War (298-290 BC) was a crucial episode in the early history of Rome. Upon its outcome rested mastery of central Italy, and the independent survival of both Rome and the Samnites. Determined to resist aggressive Roman expansion, the Samnites forged a powerful alliance with the Senones (a tribe of Italian Gauls), Etruscans and Umbrians. The result was eight years of hard campaigning, brutal sieges and bitter battles that stretched Rome to the limit. The desperate nature of the struggle is illustrated by the ritual self-sacrifice (devotio) by the Roman consul Publius Decimus Mus at the Battle of Sentinum (295 BC), which restored the resolve of the wavering Roman troops, and by the Samnite Linen Legion at the Battle of Aquilonia (393 BC), each man of which was bound by a sacred oath to conquer or die on the battlefield. Mike Roberts, who has travelled the Italian landscape upon which these events played out, mines the sources (which are more reliable, he argues, than for Rome’s previous wars) to produce a compelling narrative of this momentous conflict.

The Etruscans by Raffaele D’Amato

Title The Etruscans
Author Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2018-09-20
Category History
Total Pages 64
ISBN 9781472828323
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Ancient Rome had deep roots in the 'Villanovan' culture that we call today the Etruscans. Their long-lived civilization can be traced to 900–750 BC in north-west Italy. They were a sea-faring people trading with and competing against Greek and Phoenician peoples, including the Carthaginians. They were also a great land-based power, especially in the 'Classical' period, where they expanded their power north into the Po Valley and south to Latium. In the 6th century BC an Etruscan dynasty ruled Rome, and their power extended southwards to the Amalfi coast. In 509 BC the Romans rose up to expel their kings, which began the long 'Etruscan twilight' when their power was squeezed by the Samnites and, most especially, the Romans. Drawing on archaeological evidence including warrior tombs, paintings, sculptures, and fully illustrated throughout, this study examines one of the early rivals to Ancient Rome.

The Numidians 300 Bc Ad 300 by William Horsted

Title The Numidians 300 BC AD 300
Author William Horsted
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2021-01-21
Category History
Total Pages 48
ISBN 9781472842176
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The Numidian light cavalry were among the best-known horsemen in the ancient world: riding without saddles or bridle, carrying only hide shields for defense and clutching a handful of light javelins, they were renowned for their darting attacks, swift retreats, and skirmishing prowess. Yet, as much as they were respected by their allies and enemies, they were unfairly derided for their indiscipline, their perceived lack of culture, and their fecklessness, and dismissed as uncivilized, nomadic barbarians from beyond the fringes of the cultured, settled Mediterranean world. The famous portrayal of Numidian horsemen on Trajan's Column, of barefoot riders in simple tunics, astride tiny ponies, reinforces this view, and is the image that is almost universally reproduced. Recent scholarship, however, has shown that there is far more evidence for the armour and equipment of the Numidians than hitherto assumed. The carved stone shields and cuirasses that punctuate the decorative friezes of the stone 'altars' at Kbor Klib and Chimtou in North Africa are confident representations of Numidian panoplies, not captured Carthaginian armour as has previously been argued. In this book, this research is presented alongside a close examination of various ancient texts which reveals that the Numidians also fielded infantry, slingers, archers, and even war elephants in conflicts across the Mediterranean, including Spain, Greece, northern Italy, and Thrace. All of these troops are brought to life in original colour artwork, complemented by chapters on their weapons and equipment, history, tactics, and organization.

Leuctra 371 Bc by Murray Dahm

Title Leuctra 371 BC
Author Murray Dahm
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2021-06-24
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781472843487
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

The battle of Leuctra, fought in early July in 371 BC was one of the most important battles ever to be fought in the ancient world. Not only did it see the destruction of the Spartan dominance of Greece, it also introduced several tactical innovations which are still studied and emulated to this day. Sparta's hegemony of Greece (which had been in effect since the Persian wars of 480/79 and especially since the Peloponnesian War in 431-404 BC) was wiped away in a single day of destruction. Sparta would never recover from the losses in manpower which were suffered at Leuctra. Sparta's defeat created a power vacuum in Greece which several states attempted to fill (the Theban Hegemony and the resurgence of Athens) and gave rise to the dominance of Macedon in the 350s when Macedon would conquer Greece in 338 BC at the battle of Chaeronea. None of which would have been possible without the events at Leuctra. The Theban phalanx at Leuctra, with its great depth of 50 ranks introduced new tactical thinking in Greek warfare and this thinking eventually led to the Macedonian phalanx of Philip and Alexander which conquered Greece and the Persian Empire less than 40 years later. The Theban commander at Leuctra, Epaminondas, also introduced the idea of drawing up his forces in echelon and fighting with a refused flank – something Alexander emulated in all of his major battles and which has been attempted at countless battles since. The importance of the battle of Leuctra cannot be underestimated. This superbly illustrated title gives the reader a detailed understanding of this epic clash of forces, what led to it, its commanders, sources and the consequences it had for future civilizations.

Title Roman Republican Legionary 298 105 BC
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Osprey Publishing
Release Date 2012-04-17
Category History
Total Pages 64
ISBN 1849087814
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Soon after the Caudine Forks fiasco, where Roman citizens had suffered the humiliation of being forced to pass under the yoke, an act symbolising their loss of warrior status, the tactical formation adopted by the Roman army underwent a radical change. Introduced as part of the Servian reforms, the legion had originally operated as a Greek-style phalanx, a densely packed block of citizens wealthy enough to outfit themselves with the full panoply of an armoured spearman or hoplite. The function of a hoplite had been the privilege only of those who owned a certain amount of property, poorer citizens serving either as auxiliaries or as servants. Now, however, the Romans adopted the manipular system, whereby the legion was split into distinct battle lines, each consisting of tactical subunits, the maniples. In contrast to the one solid block of the phalanx, the legion was now divided into several small blocks, with spaces between them. The Romans, in other words, gave the phalanx 'joints' in order to secure flexibility, and what is more, each soldier, or legionary, had twice as much elbow room for individual action, which now involved swordplay instead of spear work. Even though still a citizen militia recruited from property owners supplying their own war gear, it was the manipular legion that faced Pyrrhus and his elephants, the Gauls and their long swords, Hannibal and his tactical genius, the Macedonians and their pikes, to name but a few of its formidable opponents. This book, therefore, will look at the recruitment (now based on age and experience as well as on wealth and status), training (now the responsibility of the state as opposed to the individual), weapons (new types being introduced, both native and foreign), equipment (ditto) and experiences (which included submission to a draconian regime of military discipline) of the legionary at the epoch of the middle Republic. The middle Republican era opens with the last great war with the Samnites (Third Samnite War, 298-290 BC) and closes with the Republic at the height of its imperial glory after the victory in North Africa (Iugurthine War 112-105 BC). The provisional legion in which the legionary served now exhibited many of the institutions and customs of the later professional legions, perhaps best reflected in one of its most notable practices, the construction of a temporary camp at the end of each day's march. Lest we forget, however, for our legionary, military service was not a career, but an obligation he owed to the state, and it was this militia army that conquered the peninsula of Italy, defeated the magnificent Hellenistic kingdoms and the mercantile empire of Carthage. All of the Mediterranean basin was now within the imperium of Rome, some of it organized into provinces governed by Roman magistrates, the rest reduced to client status. Romans were acquiring a sense that they possessed a world empire.

Title The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic
Author Harriet I. Flower
Publisher Cambridge University Press
Release Date 2014-06-23
Category History
Total Pages 520
ISBN 9781107032248
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

This second edition examines all aspects of Roman history, and contains a new introduction, three new chapters and updated bibliographies.

Title Roman Legionary vs Gallic Warrior
Author David Campbell
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2021-04-15
Category History
Total Pages 80
ISBN 9781472844224
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In the manner of many Roman generals, Caesar would write his domestic political ambitions in the blood and treasure of foreign lands. His governorship of Cisalpine Gaul gave him the opportunity to demonstrate the greatness of his character to the people of Rome through the subjugation of those outside Rome's borders. The fact that the main account of the subsequent wars in Gaul was written by Caesar himself – by far the most detailed history of the subject, with new reports issued annually for the eager audience at home –is no accident. The Roman Army of the late Republic had long been in the process of structural and change, moving towards the all-volunteer permanent standing force that would for centuries be the bulwark of the coming Empire. Well-armed and armoured, this professional army was trained to operate within self-supporting legions, with auxiliaries employed in roles the legions lacked such as light troops or cavalry. The Roman legions were in many ways a modern force, with formations designed around tactical goals and held together by discipline, training and common purpose. The armies fielded by the tribes of Gaul were for the most part lightly armed and armoured, with fine cavalry and a well-deserved reputation for ferocity. As might be expected from a region made up of different tribes with a range of needs and interests, there was no consensus on how to make war, though when large armies were gathered it was usually with the express purpose of bringing the enemy to heel in a pitched battle. For most Gauls – and certainly the military elites of the tribes – battle was an opportunity to prove their personal courage and skill, raising their status in the eyes of friends and foes alike. Fully illustrated, this study investigates the Roman and Gallic forces pitched into combat in three battles: Bibracte (58 BC), Sabis (57 BC) and Gergovia/Alesia (52 BC). Although charismatic Gallic leaders did rise up – notably Dumnorix of the Aedui and later Vercingetorix of the Arverni – and proved to be men capable of bringing together forces that had the prospect of checking Caesar's ambitions in the bloodiest of ways, it would not be enough. For Caesar his war against the Gauls provided him with enormous power and the springboard he needed to make Rome his own, though his many domestic enemies would ensure that he did not long enjoy his success.

Lake Trasimene 217 Bc by Nic Fields

Title Lake Trasimene 217 BC
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2017-01-26
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781472816320
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Following Hannibal's crushing victory at the battle of the Trebbia, the reeling Roman Republic sent a new army under the over-confident consul Caius Flaminius to destroy the Carthaginian invaders – unbeknownst to him they were ready and waiting. The destruction of the Roman force at Lake Trasimene firmly established Hannibal as one of the Ancient World's greatest commanders thanks to his use of innovative tactics, including the first recorded use of a turning movement. The Romans would not send another major army to confront him until the battle of Cannae in 216 BC. This new study, based on recent archaeological work on the battlefield itself, tells the full story of one of Hannibal's greatest victories with the help of maps, full-colour illustrations, and detailed sections on the make-up of the armies and their commanders.

New York 1776 by David Smith

Title New York 1776
Author David Smith
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2012-09-20
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781846038402
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

General Sir William Howe's New York campaign gave the British their best chance of destroying the Continental Army and George Washington's resistance to colonial power. Howe succeeded in dividing the Continentals, defeated them on Long Island and forced Washington to retreat to Brooklyn Heights. Under siege there, Washington successfully crossed the East River to Manhattan but soon had to fall back on Harlem Heights. After a few weeks Howe forced the Continentals north to White Plains and defeated them again. However, he allowed Washington to withdraw and preserve his army when a more aggressive pursuit could have ended the war. Instead, with the British army rapidly weakening and facing huge manpower shortages, Washington emerged from a succession of defeats to produce what was ultimately a war-winning strategy. The author provides fascinating insights into a unique campaign in which a string of British victories ultimately led to failure and defeat.

Britannia Ad 43 by Nic Fields

Title Britannia AD 43
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2020-09-17
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781472842084
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

For the Romans, Britannia lay beyond the comfortable confines of the Mediterranean world around which classical civilisation had flourished. Britannia was felt to be at the outermost edge of the world itself, lending the island an air of dangerous mystique. To the soldiers crossing the Oceanus Britannicus in the late summer of AD 43, the prospect of invading an island believed to be on its periphery must have meant a mixture of panic and promise. These men were part of a formidable army of four veteran legions (II Augusta, VIIII Hispana, XIIII Gemina, XX Valeria), which had been assembled under the overall command of Aulus Plautius Silvanus. Under him were, significantly, first-rate legionary commanders, including the future emperor Titus Flavius Vespasianus. With the auxiliary units, the total invasion force probably mounted to around 40,000 men, but having assembled at Gessoriacum (Boulogne) they refused to embark. Eventually, the mutinous atmosphere was dispelled, and the invasion fleet sailed in three contingents. So, ninety-seven years after Caius Iulius Caesar, the Roman army landed in south-eastern Britannia. After a brisk summer campaign, a province was established behind a frontier zone running from what is now Lyme Bay on the Dorset coast to the Humber estuary. Though the territory overrun during the first campaign season was undoubtedly small, it laid the foundations for the Roman conquest which would soon begin to sweep across Britannia. In this highly illustrated and detailed title, Nic Fields tells the full story of the invasion which established the Romans in Britain, explaining how and why the initial Claudian invasion succeeded and what this meant for the future of Britain.

Title A Critical History of Early Rome
Author Gary Forsythe
Publisher Univ of California Press
Release Date 2006-08-07
Category History
Total Pages 400
ISBN 0520249917
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Traces the history of early Rome, covering such topics as religion, language, and culture.

Strasbourg Ad 357 by Raffaele D’Amato

Title Strasbourg AD 357
Author Raffaele D’Amato
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2019-05-30
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781472833969
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Civil war in the Western Roman Empire between AD 350–53 had left the frontiers weakly defended, and the major German confederations along the Rhine – the Franks and Alemanni – took advantage of the situation to cross the river, destroy the Roman fortifications along it and occupy parts of Roman Gaul. In 355, the Emperor Constantius appointed his 23-year-old cousin Julian as his Caesar in the provinces of Gaul with command of all troops in the region. Having recaptured the city of Cologne, Julian planned to trap the Alemanni in a pincer movement, but when the larger half of his army was forced into retreat, he was left facing a much larger German force outside the walls of the city of Strasbourg. This new study relates the events of this epic battle as the experience and training of the Roman forces prevailed in the face of overwhelming German numbers.

Alesia 52 Bc by Nic Fields

Title Alesia 52 BC
Author Nic Fields
Publisher Bloomsbury Publishing
Release Date 2014-06-20
Category History
Total Pages 96
ISBN 9781782009238
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

In 52 BC Caesar's continued strategy of annihilation had engendered a spirit of desperation, which detonated into a revolt of Gallic tribes under the leadership of the charismatic young Arvernian noble Vercingetorix. Major engagements were fought at Noviodunum, Avaricum, and Gergovia, with the last action being the most serious reverse that Caesar faced in the whole of the Gallic War. However, Vercingetorix soon realized that he was unable to match the Romans in pitched battle. Taking advantage of the tribesmen's superior knowledge of their home territory, Vercingetorix began a canny policy of small war and defensive manoeuvres, which gravely hampered Caesar's movements by cutting off his supplies. For Caesar it was to be a grim summertime – his whole Gallic enterprise faced disaster. In the event, by brilliant leadership, force of arms, and occasionally sheer luck, Caesar succeeded in stamping out the revolt in a long and brutal action culminating in the siege of Alesia. Vercingetorix finally surrendered and Alesia was to be the last significant resistance to the Roman will. Never again would a Gallic warlord independent of Rome hold sway over the Celts of Gaul.

Title The Encyclopedia of Ancient Battles
Author Michael Whitby
Publisher Wiley-Blackwell
Release Date 2017-10-16
Category Battles
Total Pages 1410
ISBN 1119099005
Language English, Spanish, and French
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Book Summary:

Focused on battle narratives of the classical world on land and at sea, this three-volume reference covers Archaic Greece in the eighth century BC to the rise of Islam in the seventh century AD. Three-volume reference on land and sea battles of the classical world from Archaic Greece in the eighth century BC to the rise of Islam in the seventh century AD Concentrates on narratives of specific battles, sieges, campaigns, and wars Contains the most complete and up-to-date scholarship on the subject Organized by individual wars, with chronological entries for each battle Brings together a distinguished, international group of experts on ancient military history Get the digital version at www.encyclopediaofancientbattles.com.